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Semyon Budyonny

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Title: Semyon Budyonny  
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Subject: Battle of Kiev (1941), 1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union), Marshal of the Soviet Union, Polish–Soviet War, Red Cavalry
Collection: 1883 Births, 1973 Deaths, Bolsheviks, Burials at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Members, Frunze Military Academy Alumni, Marshals of the Soviet Union, Members of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, People from Don Host Oblast, People from Proletarsky District, Rostov Oblast, People of the Polish–soviet War, People of the Russian Civil War, Recipients of the Cross of St. George, Recipients of the Order of Lenin, Eight Times, Recipients of the Order of Suvorov, 1St Class, Recipients of the Order of the October Revolution, Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, Six Times, Russian Military Personnel of the Russo-Japanese War, Russian Military Personnel of World War I, Soviet People of the Ukrainian–soviet War, Triple Heroes of the Soviet Union
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Semyon Budyonny

Semyon Budyonny
Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny.
Birth name Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny
Born (1883-04-25)April 25, 1883
Platovskaya, Don Host Oblast, Russian Empire
Died October 26, 1973(1973-10-26) (aged 90)
Moscow, Russian SFSR
Allegiance  Russian Empire (1903-1917)
 Russian SFSR (1917-1922)
 Soviet Union (1922-1973)
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
Red Army
Years of service 1903 — 1954
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union
Commands held 1st Cavalry Army
Moscow Military District
Reserve Front
Battles/wars Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
Polish-Soviet War
World War II
Awards
(8)
Order of the Red Banner (6)
Order of the October Revolution
Order of Suvorov, 1st Class
Cross of St. George, 1—4 Classes

Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (   ; sometimes transliterated as Budennyj, Budyonnyy, Budennii, Budyoni, Budyenny, or Budenny; Russian: Семён Миха́йлович Будённый; April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a red cossack, Soviet cavalryman, military commander, politician and a close ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • During the Russian Civil War 2
  • During the Polish-Soviet War 3
  • Later military career 4
  • Other contributions 5
  • Honours and awards 6
  • Honouring, naming 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Early life

Budyonny was born into a poor peasant family on the Kozyurin farmstead near the town of Bolshaya Orlovka in the Don Cossack region of the southern Russian Empire (now Rostov Oblast). Although he grew up in a Cossack region, Budyonny was not a Cossack—his family actually came from Voronezh province. He was of Russian ethnicity. He worked as a farm laborer, shop errand boy, blacksmith's apprentice, and driver of a steam-driven threshing machine, until the autumn of 1903, when he was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. He became a cavalryman reinforcing the 46th Cossack Regiment during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. After the war, he was transferred to the Primorsk Dragoon Regiment. In 1907, he was sent to the Academy for Cavalry Officers in the St. Petersburg Riding School. He graduated first in his class after a year, becoming an instructor with the rank of junior non-commissioned officer. He returned to his regiment as a riding instructor with a rank of senior non-commissioned officer. At the start of World War I, he joined a reserve dragoon cavalry battalion.[1]:9–12

During

  • Colour poster and biography from site of ETS Publishing House

External links

  • Babel, Isaac (2002). The Complete Works of Isaac Babel. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 751.  
  • RICHARD BERNSTEIN (May 31, 1995). "BOOKS OF THE TIMES; A Meticulous Eye for War's Poetry and Brutality" (Web).  
  • Antonov-Ovseenko, The Time of Stalin, p. 183
  1. ^ a b c d e f Budyonny, S., 1972, The Path of Valour, Moscow: Progress Publishe

References

The Military Academy of the Signal Corps in St. Petersburg carries the name of honour S. M. Budjonny

Honouring, naming

Order of Sukhbaatar, twice (Mongolia)
Order of the Red Banner, (Mongolia, 1936)
Order of Friendship (Mongolia, 1967)
Medal "50 years of the Mongolian People's Revolution" (Mongolia, 1970)
Medal "50 years of the Mongolian People's Army" (Mongolia, 1970)
Foreign awards
Three times Hero of the Soviet Union
Eight Orders of Lenin
Six Orders of the Red Banner
Order of Suvorov 1st class
Jubilee Medal "For Military Valour in Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary since the Birth of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin"
Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"
Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol"
Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" (1 May 1944)
Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945"
Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"
Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow"
Medal "In Commemoration of the 250th Anniversary of Leningrad"
Soviet Union
Order of St. George, all four classes
Russian Empire

Honours and awards

Budyonny, who was a renowned horse breeder, also created a new horse breed that is still kept in large numbers in Russia: the Budyonny horse, which is famous for its high performance in sports and endurance.

Budyonny wrote a five-volume memoir, in which he described the stormy years of civil war as well as the everyday life of the First Cavalry Army. He was frequently commemorated for his bravery in many popular Soviet military songs, including The Red Cavalry song (Konarmieyskaya) and The Budyonny March. Budenovka, a part of Soviet military uniform, is named after Semyon Budyonny.

Other contributions

In September, Stalin made Budyonny a scapegoat, dismissing him as Commander-in-Chief, Southwestern Direction, and replacing him with the far abler Semyon Timoshenko. Budyonny was then placed in charge of the Reserve Front (September–October 1941), Commander-in-Chief of the troops in the North Caucasus Direction (April–May, 1942), Commander of the North Caucasus Front (May–August, 1942) and Cavalry Inspector of the Red Army (since 1943), as well as various honorific posts. Despite being blamed by Stalin for some of the Soviet Union's most catastrophic World War II defeats (although acting on Stalin's specific orders), he continued to enjoy Stalin's patronage and suffered no real punishment. After the war he was allowed to retire as a Hero of the Soviet Union and he died of a brain hemorrhage in 1973.

In July–September 1941, Budyonny was Commander-in-Chief (главком, glavkom) of the Soviet armed forces of the Southwestern Direction (Southwestern and Southern Fronts) facing the German invasion of Ukraine. This invasion began as part of Germany's Operation Barbarossa which was launched on June 22. Operating under strict orders from Stalin (who attempted to micromanage the war in the early stages) to not retreat under any circumstances, Budyonny's forces were eventually surrounded during the Battle of Uman and the Battle of Kiev. The disasters which followed the encirclement cost the Soviet Union 1.5 million men killed or taken prisoner. This was one of the largest encirclements in military history.

Budyonny was considered a courageous and colorful cavalry officer, but displayed disdain for innovation and a profound ignorance of modern warfare, particularly the impact of tanks, which he saw as "incapable of ever replacing cavalry". During Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky's Great Purge trial he stated that Tukhachevsky's efforts to create an independent tank corps was so inferior to horse cavalry and so illogical that it amounted to deliberate "wrecking". To this denouncement, the doomed Tukhachevsky (now considered a pioneering innovator in tank warfare) blankly replied "I feel I'm dreaming". Tukhachevsky was subsequently sentenced to death. In 1937 Budyonny commanded the Moscow Military District. Regardless of the military trials Red Army never stopped developing large scale mechanized corps, and each front had numerous such corps attached as a second echelon force by 1940-41.

In 1935 Budyonny was made one of the first five Marshals of the Soviet Union. Three of these five were executed in the Great Purge of the late 1930s, leaving only Budyonny and Voroshilov.

From 1921-1923, Budyonny was deputy commander of the North Caucasian Military District. He spent a great amount of time and effort in the organization and management of equestrian facilities and developing new breeds of horses. In 1923, Budyonny arrived in Chechnya with a proclamation from the Central Executive Committee announcing the formation of the Chechen Autonomous Region. The same year, he was also appointed assistant commander of the Red Army's cavalry. In 1924, he became Inspector of Cavalry in the Red Army. Budyonny graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1932.

Budyonny at Marshal Tukhachevsky's Show Trial, 1937

Later military career

In 1920 Budyonny's Cavalry Army took part in the invasion of Poland in the Polish-Soviet War, in which it was quite successful at first, pushing Polish forces out of Ukraine and later breaking through Polish southern frontlines. However, later the Bolsheviks forces sustained a heavy defeat in the Battle of Warsaw, mainly because Budyonny's Army was bogged down at Lviv. After his army was defeated in the Battle of Komarów (one of the biggest cavalry battles in history), Budyonny was then sent south to fight the Whites in Ukraine and the Crimea. Despite the defeat in Poland, he was one of Soviet Russia's military heroes by the end of the Civil War.

During the Polish-Soviet War

The 1st Cavalry Army. This Army played an important role in winning the Civil War for the Bolsheviks, driving the White General Anton Denikin back from Moscow. Budyonny joined the Bolshevik party in 1919, and formed close relationships with Joseph Stalin and Klim Voroshilov.

Returning to Platovskaya, Budyonny was elected deputy chairman of the Stanista Soviet of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks' and Soldiers' Deputies on 12 Jan. 1918. On 18 Feb., he was elected to be a member of the brigade on 7 Aug.[1]:43–45,50–53,70,79,85,89

During the Russian Civil War

After the Russian Revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime in 1917, Budyonny was elected chairman of the squadron committee and a member of the regimental committee. When the Caucasian Cavalry Division was moved to Minsk, he was elected chairman of the regimental committee and deputy chairman of the divisional committee.[1]:29–30

:22–26[1] Budyonny would go on to be reawarded the St. George Cross, 4th class, during the

In Nov. 1916, the Caucausian Cavalry Division was transferred to the court martial and death.[1]:16–22

:12–16[1]

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