World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Siphoviridae

Article Id: WHEBN0000565144
Reproduction Date:

Title: Siphoviridae  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chart of Viruses and Characteristics, Psimunalikevirus, Bacteriophage T5, Caudovirales, Lambda phage
Collection: Siphoviridae, Virus Families
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Siphoviridae

Siphoviridae
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Order: Caudovirales
Family: Siphoviridae
Genera
Synonyms
  • Styloviridae[1]

Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria and archeabacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently 313 species in this family, divided among 47 genera.[2][3] The characteristic structural features of this family are a nonenveloped head and noncontractile tail.

Contents

  • Structure 1
  • Life Cycle 2
  • Taxonomy 3
    • Proposed genera 3.1
    • Unclassified 3.2
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Structure

Viruses in Siphoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and head-tail geometries[2] (morphotype B1) or a prolate capsid (morphotype B2), and T=7 symmetry. The diameter is around 60 nm.[2] Members of this family are also characterized by their filamentous, cross-banded, noncontractile tails, usually with short terminal and subterminal fibers. Genomes are double stranded and linear, around 50kb in length,[2] containing about 70 genes. The guanine/cytosine content is usually around 52%.

Life Cycle

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the replicative transposition model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, and +1 ribosomal frameshifting. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins.[2] Bacteria and archeabacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[2]

Taxonomy

Group: dsDNA

[3]

Proposed genera

Electron micrographs of siphovirus from P. acnes. Phages were negatively stained and subjected to transmission electron microscopy. The phages have a head of approximately 55 nm in diameter, loaded with genetic material. Their tails have a size of 150 × 10 nm and are flexible and non-contractile. In the lower micrograph, PAD25 is adhering to bacterial cell debris, and two phages have lost their heads. All phages were classified as Siphoviruses based on their morphology.[4]

The organisation of genes in the genera L5likevirus, Lambdalikevirus, Phic3unalikevirus, and Psimunalikevirus and the proposed genera Sfi2likevirus, Sfi1likevirus, Sk1likevirus, and Tm4likevirus suggests that these may form a lambda supergroup (or subfamily).[5]

The following genera have been proposed but are not currently ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses:[6][7][8][9][10][11]

  • Genus Cba39unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi39:1
    • Species:
      • Cellulophaga phage phi39:1
  • Genus Cba46unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi46:1
    • Species:
      • Cellulophaga phage phi46:1
  • Genus Cba18unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi18:1
    • Species:
      • Cellulophaga phage phi18:1
      • Cellulophaga phage phi12:1
      • Cellulophaga phage phi12:3
      • Cellulophaga phage phi17:1
      • Cellulophaga phage phi18:2
  • Genus Cba10unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi10:1
    • Species:
      • Cellulophaga phage phi10:1
      • Cellulophaga phage phi19:1
  • Genus Cba13unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi13:1
    • Species:
      • Cellulophaga phage phi13:1
      • Cellulophaga phage phi19:2
      • Cellulophaga phage phiST
  • Genus Jk06likevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Jk06
    • Species
      • Escherichia phage Eb49
      • Escherichia phage Jk06
      • Escherichia phage Rogue1
      • Escherichia phage AHP24
      • Escherichia phage AHS24
      • Escherichia phage AHP42
      • Escherichia phage AKS96
      • Enterobacteria phage phiJLA23
      • Enterobacteria phage phiKP26
  • Genus Kp36likevirus; type species: Klebsiella phage KP36
    • Species
      • Enterobacter phage F20
      • Klebsiella phage KP36
  • Genus R1tlikevirus; type species: Lactococcus phage r1t
    • Species
      • Lactococcus phage r1t
  • Genus Rtplikevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Rtp
    • Species
      • Escherichia phage Rtp
      • Enterobacteria phage vB_EcoS_ACG-M12
  • Genus Tlslikevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Tls
    • Species
      • Escherichia phage Tls
      • Salmonella phage FSL SP-126

Unclassified

In addition to the above viruses, many members of Siphoviridae have been grouped into an unclassified group with no genus assignment.[12] This group includes numerous phages known to infect Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium, Streptococcus, and other bacteria.

References

  1. ^ Safferman, R.S.; Cannon, R.E.; Desjardins, P.R.; Gromov, B.V.; Haselkorn, R.; Sherman, L.A.; Shilo, M. "Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses of Cyanobacteria". Intervirology 19 (2): 61–66.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  4. ^ Lood R, Mörgelin M, Holmberg A, Rasmussen M, Collin M (2008). "Inducible Siphoviruses in superficial and deep tissue isolates of Propionibacterium acnes". BMC Microbiol. 8: 139.  
  5. ^ Brüssow H, Desiere F (2001). "Comparative phage genomics and the evolution of Siphoviridae: insights from dairy phages". Mol Microbiol 39 (2): 213–22.  
  6. ^ "The Dilemma of Phage Taxonomy Illustrated by Comparative Genomics of Sfi21-Like Siphoviridae in Lactic Acid Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. September 2014.  
  7. ^ "Three proposed new bacteriophage genera of staphylococcal phages: "3alikevirus", "77likevirus" and "Phietalikevirus"". Archives of Virology. 11 Sep 2013.  
  8. ^ Taxonomy Proposals Awaiting Ratification at ICTV
  9. ^ Taxonomy Proposals Pending at ICTV
  10. ^ Holmfeldt, K.; Solonenko, N.; Shah, M.; Corrier, K.; Riemann, L.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Sullivan, M. B. (2013). "Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (31): 12798.  
  11. ^ Niu, Y. D.; McAllister, T. A.; Nash, J. H. E.; Kropinski, A. M.; Stanford, K. (2014). "Four Escherichia coli O157:H7 Phages: A New Bacteriophage Genus and Taxonomic Classification of T1-Like Phages". PLoS ONE 9 (6): e100426.  
  12. ^ "unclassified Siphoviridae". NCBI Taxonomy. 

External links

  • : SiphoviridaeViralzone
  • ICTV
  • Complete Genomes of Siphoviridae
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.