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Species Plantarum

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Title: Species Plantarum  
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Subject: 10th edition of Systema Naturae, History of botany, 1753 in science, Genera Plantarum, Binomial nomenclature
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Species Plantarum

Species Plantarum
Cover page of first edition
Author Carl Linnaeus
Country Sweden
Language Latin
Subject Botany
Published Laurentius Salvius (1 May 1753)
Media type Print
Pages xi, 1200 + xxxi
OCLC 186272535

Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera. It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants.


Species Plantarum[Note 1] was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes.[1] A second edition was published in 1762–1763,[1] and a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second.[2] Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow, the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden; the fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes.[3]


Prior to Species Plantarum, this plant was referred to as "Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti"; Linnaeus renamed it Plantago media.

Species Plantarum was the first botanical work to consistently apply the tenth edition of Systema Naturae would apply the same technique to animals for the first time in 1758). Prior to this work, a plant species would be known by a long polynomial, such as Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti (meaning "plantain with pubescent ovate-lanceolate leaves, a cylindrical spike and a terete scape")[4] or Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatis pedunculatis (meaning "Nepeta with flowers in a stalked, interrupted spike").[5] In Species Plantarum, these cumbersome names were replaced with two-part names, consisting of a single-word genus name, and a single-word specific epithet or "trivial name"; the two examples above became Plantago media and Nepeta cataria, respectively.[4][5] The use of binomial names had originally been developed as a kind of shorthand in a student project about the plants eaten by cattle.[6]

After the specific epithet, Linnaeus gave a short description of each species, and a synonymy. The descriptions were careful and terse, consisting of few words in small genera; in Glycyrrhiza, for instance, the three species (Glycyrrhiza echinata, Glycyrrhiza glabra and "Glycyrrhiza hirsuta"[Note 2], respectively) were described as "leguminibus echinata", "leguminibus glabra" and "leguminibus hirsutis".[8]

Because it is the first work in which binomial nomenclature was consistently applied, Species Plantarum was chosen as the "starting point" for the nomenclature of most plants (the nomenclature of some non-vascular plants and all fungi uses later starting points).[4]


Species Plantarum contained descriptions of the thousands of plant species known to Linnaeus at the time. In the first edition, there were 5,940 names, from Acalypha australis to Zygophyllum spinosum.[9] In his introduction, Linnaeus estimated that there were only around 10,000 plant species in existence;[10] there are now thought to be around 400,000 species of flowering plants alone.[11]

The species were arranged in around a thousand genera, which were grouped into 24 classes, according to Linnaeus' sexual system of classification.[12] There are no descriptions of the genera in Species Plantarum; these are supplied in the companion volume Genera Plantarum ("the genera of plants"), the fifth edition of which was printed at a similar time to the first edition of Species Plantarum.[8] Linnaeus' sexual system is now acknowledged to be an artificial system, rather than one which accurately reflects shared ancestry,[12] but the system's simplicity made it easier for non-specialists to rapidly find the correct class, being based on simple counts of floral parts such as stigmas and stamens.[1]


  1. ^ Its full title was Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas.
  2. ^ Now considered a synonym of G. glabra.[7]


  1. ^ a b c "Carolus Linnæus, Species Plantarum, Stockholm 1762–3". Collection Highlight Summer 2007.  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ V. N. Naik (1984). "A review of pre-Darwinian classification". Taxonomy of Angiosperms.  
  4. ^ a b c Katherine E. Cullen (2006). "Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778): binomial nomenclature system". Biology: The People Behind the Science.  
  5. ^ a b Roger Spencer, Rob Cross & Peter Lumley (2007). "Latin names, the binomial system and plant classification". Plant Names: a Guide to Botanical Nomenclature (3rd ed.).  
  6. ^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). "Carolus Linnaeus". The 100 Most Influential Scientists of All Time.  
  7. ^ Linnaeus"Glycyrrhiza hirsuta". The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project.  
  8. ^ a b Duane Isely (2002). "Carl Linnaeus". One Hundred and One Botanists.  
  9. ^ Robert W. Kiger. "Species Plantarum"Index to Binomials Cited in the First Edition of Linnaeus' .  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ "How many flowering plants are there in the world?".  
  12. ^ a b Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh (2011). "Plant world". The Handy Science Answer Book.  

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