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State Enterprise

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State Enterprise

A government-owned corporation, state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking or parastatal is a legal entity created by a government to undertake commercial activities on behalf of an owner government. Their legal status varies from being a part of government to stock companies with a state as a regular stockholder. There is no standard definition of a government-owned corporation (GOC) or state-owned enterprise (SOE), although the two terms can be used interchangeably. The defining characteristics are that they have a distinct legal form and they are established to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, GOCs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely non-financial objectives.[1]

Government-owned corporations are common with natural monopolies and infrastructure such as railways and telecommunications, strategic goods and services (mail, weapons), natural resources and energy, politically sensitive business, broadcasting, demerit goods (alcohol) and merit goods (healthcare).

Definitions

GOCs can be fully owned or partially owned by government. As a definitional issue, it is difficult to determine categorically what level of state ownership would qualify an entity to be considered as "state-owned", since governments can also own regular stock, without implying any special interference. As an example, the Chinese Investment Corporation agreed in 2007 to acquire a 10% interest in the global investment bank Morgan Stanley, but it is unlikely that this would qualify the latter as a government-owned corporation. Government-owned or state-run enterprises are often the result of corporatization, a process in which government agencies and departments are re-organized as semi-autonomous corporate entities, sometimes with partial shares listed on stock exchanges.

The term 'government-linked company' (GLC) is sometimes used to refer to corporate entities that may be private or public (listed on a stock exchange) where an existing government owns a stake using a holding company. There are two main definitions of GLCs are dependent on the proportion of the corporate entity a government owns. One definition purports that a company is classified as a GLC if a government owns an effective controlling interest (>50%), while the second definition suggests that any corporate entity that has a government as a shareholder is a GLC.

A quasi-governmental organization, corporation, business, or agency (parastatal) or a "quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation" (quango) is an entity that is treated by national laws and regulations to be under the guidance of the government but separate and autonomous from the government. While the entity may receive some revenue from charging customers for its services, these organizations are often partially or majorly funded by the government. They are usually considered highly important to smooth running of society and are sometimes propped up with cash infusions in times of crisis to help surmount situations that would bankrupt a normal privately owned business. They may possess law-enforcement authority, usually related to their functions.

Economic sectors

Government-owned corporations often operate in sectors where there is a natural monopoly, or where the government has strategic interest. However, government ownership of industry corporations is common.

Nationalization also forcibly converts a private corporation into a government-owned corporation.

In most OPEC countries, the governments own the oil companies operating on their soil. A notable example is the Saudi national oil company, Saudi Aramco, which the Saudi government bought in 1988 and changed its name from Arabian American Oil Company to Saudi Arabian Oil Company. The Saudi government also owns and operates Saudi Arabian Airlines, and owns 70% of SABIC, as well as many other companies. They are, however, being privatized gradually.

Commonwealth

In monarchical Commonwealth countries, particularly Australia, Canada and New Zealand, country-wide government corporations often use the style "Crown corporation." Equivalent terms include "State-owned enterprises" and "Crown entities" in New Zealand, and Government Business Enterprise (GBE) in Australia. Examples of Crown corporations include the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Air Canada before the latter underwent privatization. Cabinet ministers (Ministers of the Crown) often control the shares in such public corporations.

At the level of local government, territorial or other authorities may set up government corporations such as "Local Authority Trading Enterprises" (LATEs). Many local authorities establish services such as water supply as separate corporations or as a business unit of the authority.

Australia

In Australia the predominant term used for Commonwealth government-owned companies is "government business enterprise" (GBE). Various Australian states also have GBEs, especially with respect to the provision of water and sewerage, but many state-based GBEs were privatized in some states during the last decade of the twentieth century.

Commonwealth GBEs include:

Some of these corporations are overseen by the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy.

Privatisation

Former Commonwealth government-owned corporations include Telstra, established in the 1970s as Telecom Australia. Telstra, now Australia's leading telecommunications company, was privatized in 1997 by the government of John Howard. As of June 2010 Telstra owned a majority of the copper wire infrastructure in Australia (the rest is owned by Optus) and is pending sale to its former parent, the Australian government, for a non-binding amount of 11 billion Australian dollars, as ducts in the copper wire tunnels are needed to install the fiber optic cable.

In Victoria many GBEs were sold in the 1990s to reduce the state's level of debt. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria and the Gas and Fuel Corporation were the best-known government enterprises to be disaggregated and sold.

Canada

In Canada, state-owned corporations are referred to as Crown corporation, indicating that an organization is established by law, owned by the sovereign (either in right of Canada or a province), and overseen by parliament and cabinet. Examples of federal Crown corporations include the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canada Post, Canadian National, and Via Rail. Ministers of the Crown often control the shares in such public corporations, while parliament both sets out the laws that create and bind Crown corporations and sets their annual budgets.

Saskatchewan has maintained the largest number of Crown corporations, including SaskEnergy, SaskPower, SaskTel, SaskWater, and Saskatchewan Government Insurance. Crown corporations of British Columbia include BC Hydro, BC Ferries, BC Housing Management Commission, and the British Columbia Lottery Corporation.

Privatization, or the selling of Crown corporations to private interests, is common throughout Canada. Petro-Canada, Canadian National Railway, and Air Canada are examples of former federal Crown corporations that have been privatized. Privatized provincial Crown corporations include Alberta Government Telephones (which merged with privately owned BC Tel to form Telus), BCRIC, Manitoba Telecom Services, and Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the terms used for government-owned companies include "state-owned enterprises" and "crown entities". Local government councils and similar authorities also set up government corporations, such as water supply companies and "local-authority trading enterprises" (LATEs) (New Zealand), as separate corporations or business unit of the councils concerned.

Government owned businesses which are the crown entities:

State-owned enterprises include:

State-owned enterprises which has been privatised and then renationalised:

United Kingdom

After extensive privatisation of the public sector during the Margaret Thatcher administration, there remain few statutory corporations in the UK. Ongoing privatisations lasted from the end of the 1970s, through the 1980s until 1990 with the privatisation of British Rail. After the Hatfield rail crash accident, the British government had to intervene and temporarily renationalise some companies.

Central government


Rescued banks
Devolved government
Local government

Europe

In Western Europe there was a massive nationalization throughout the 20th century, especially after World War II to ensure Government control over natural monopolies and to some extent industry. Typical sectors included telecommunications, power, petroleum, railways, airports, airlines, public transport, health care, postal services and sometimes banks. Many large industrial corporations were also nationalized or created as Government corporations, including among many British Steel, Statoil and Irish Sugar. Starting in the late 1970s and accelerating through the 1980s and 1990s many of these corporations were privatized, though many still remain wholly or partially owned by the respective governments.

A state-run enterprise needs to be distinguished from an ordinary limited liability corporation owned by the state. For example, in Finland, state-run enterprises (liikelaitos) are governed by a separate act. Even though responsible for their own finances, they cannot be declared bankrupt; the state answers for the liabilities. Stocks of the corporation are not sold and loans have to be government-approved, as they are government liabilities. In contrast, the state also owns controlling interest in ordinary limited liability corporations. A state-run enterprise is technically not always a corporation, it might also be a separate state entity, or simply a governmental agency acting as an enterprise, perhaps having its own budget. Conversely, the state can directly fund unprofitable business, such as railway services to remote areas, regardless of whether the operator is a private corporation.

Belgium

Region of Wallonia owns the:

France

The fully owned corporations (51% or more) of the French Republic:

The state of France owns a minority stake in:

Netherlands

Sweden

Two types: Government-owned companies, which legally are normal companies but mainly or fully national owned. They are expected to be funded by their sales. A big customer might be the government or a government agency. The other type is Government agencies which might also do activities competing with private owned companies. They usually are funded by tax money but can also sell services.

Russia

Government-owned Open joint-stock company

Examples:

Unitary enterprise

In Russia and some other post-Soviet states, a unitary enterprise (Russian: унитарное предприятие) is a commercial organization that have no ownership rights to the assets used in their operations. This form is possible only for state and municipal enterprises, operating with state or municipal property, respectively. The owners of the property of a unitary enterprise have no responsibility for its operation, and vice versa.

The assets of unitary enterprises belong to the Federal government, a Russian region, or a municipality. A unitary enterprise holds assets under the right of economic management (for both state and municipal unitary enterprises) or operative management (for state unitary enterprises only), and that such assets may not be distributed among the participants, nor otherwise divided. A unitary enterprise is independent in economic issues and obliged only to give its profits to the state. Unitary enterprises would have no right to set up subsidiaries, but, with the owner's consent, can open branches and representation offices.

State corporation

By contrast, a state corporation (Russian: государственная корпорация) is a non-profit organization which manages its assets as described in its charter. State Corporations are not obliged to submit to public authorities documents accounting for activities (except for a number of documents submitted to the Russian government) and, as a rule, are subordinate not to the government, but to the Russian president, and act to accomplish some important goal. Control by the Government is implemented on the basis of annual corporation meetings, an annual report on the audit opinion of accounting and financial reporting (accounting), as well as the conclusion of the auditing commission on the results of verification of financial (accounting) statements and other corporation documents. Any other federal government departments, organs of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, and the local governments have no right to interfere in the activities of State corporations.

Switzerland

Here is the government owned of the Swiss Confederation:

Asia

Afghanistan

In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) as a "state owned enterprise" subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By Presidential Decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan.[4]

China, People's Republic of

Main article: Economy of the People's Republic of China

After 1949, all business entities in the People's Republic of China were created and owned by the government. In the late 1980s, the government began to reform the state-owned enterprise, and during the 1990s and 2000s, many mid-sized and small sized state-owned enterprises were privatized and went public. There are a number of different corporate forms which result in a mixture of public and private capital. In PRC terminology, a state-owned enterprise refers to a particular corporate form, which is increasingly being replaced by the listed company. State-owned enterprises are governed by both local governments and, in the central government, the national State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission. As of 2011, 35% of business activity and 43% of profits in the People's Republic of China resulted from companies in which the state owned a majority interest. Critics, such as The New York Times, have alleged that China's state-owned companies are a vehicle for corruption by the families of ruling party leaders who have sometimes amassed fortunes while managing them.[5]

China, Republic of (Taiwan)

The founding father of the Republic of China and of the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen, was heavily influenced by the economic ideas of Henry George, who believed that the rents extracted from natural monopolies or the usage of land belonged to the public. Sun argued for Georgism and emphasized the importance of a mixed economy, which he termed "The Principle of Minsheng" in his Three Principles of the People.

"The railroads, public utilities, canals, and forests should be nationalized, and all income from the land and mines should be in the hands of the State. With this money in hand, the State can therefore finance the social welfare programs."[6]

Kuomintang leader, and later President of the Republic of China on the mainland and Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek, crushed pro-communist worker and peasant organizations and the rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time. Chiang continued Sun Yat-sen's anti-capitalist ideology-Kuomintang media openly attacked the capitalists and capitalism, demanding government-controlled industry instead.[7]

The Kuomintang Muslim Governor of Ningxia, Ma Hongkui promoted state-owned monopoly companies. His government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commerce and industrial activity in Ningxia.[8]

Under the Kuomintang Muslim General Ma Bufang in Qinghai, industries and projects such as educational, medical, agricultural, and sanitation schemes were controlled by the state.[9]

The Chinese Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) governed southern Xinjiang from 1934 to 1937. The General Ma Hushan was chief of the 36th Division. Chinese Muslims operated state-owned carpet factories.[10]

Corporations such as CSBC Corporation, Taiwan, CPC Corporation, Taiwan and Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation are owned by the state in the Republic of China.

India

In India, a government-owned corporation is termed a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). This term is used to refer to companies in which the government (either the federal Union Government or the many state or territorial governments, or both) own a majority (51 percent or more) of the company equity. There are 251 PSU companies in India as of 2012.

Some examples include:

Tamil Nadu

Main article: Tamil Nadu Government Organizations

In Tamil Nadu, Government of Tamil Nadu has some Public Sector Undertaking(PSU) under its control.

Indonesia

Government-owned corporations are easy to recognise by their names. Company names with suffix PERSERO mean that the company is wholly/majority owned by the government. The government takes control of the state corporations under one single ministry, the Ministry of State Enterprises, which acts like the CEO of a holding company. Some of the government-owned corporations are;

In January 2012, the Minister of State Enterprises decided to unite manufacturing companies and for the first stage PT Barata should acquire PT Bisma to make an effective manufacturing sector.[11]

Japan

In Japan, Japan Post was reorganized into Japan Post Group in 2007 as a material step of the postal privatization. It is currently wholly owned by the government, but is planned to be sold into private ownership. Japan Railways Group (JR), Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) and Japan Tobacco (JT) were formerly owned by the government.

Philippines

Main article: Government owned and controlled corporation

Government owned and controlled corporations, or GOCCs, include a wide variety of different independent organizations. Some have a commercial purpose, such as the Philippine National Oil Company, while others like the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), or the Philippine Institute for Development Studies fulfill more traditional government roles. The leadership, budget, and funding of the corporations are independent of the Philippine National Government but to varying degrees. Some such as the National Food Authority receive quite a bit of subsidy from the National Government.[12]

Singapore

The economy of Singapore is dominated by government-linked corporations that produce as much as 60% of the country's GDP.[13] These government-linked companies are owned by a government holding agency, Temasek Holdings. Notable Government-linked corporations include Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering, MediaCorp and Singapore Temasek Holdings.

Thailand

Here is the government owned corporation owned by the kingdom of Thailand. The Kingdom of Thailand as shareholding of 51% or more.

Africa

Kenya

Parastatals in Kenya, partly from a lack of expertise and endemic corruption, have largely inhibited economic development. In 1979, a presidential commission went as far as saying that they constituted "a serious threat to the economy", and, by 1989, they had still not furthered industrialization or fostered the development of a Black business class.[14]

Several Kenyan SOEs have been privatized since the 1980s, with mixed results.[15][16]

South Africa

In South Africa "the Department of Public Enterprises is the shareholder representative of the South African Government with oversight responsibility for state-owned enterprises in key sectors, including: Defence, Energy, Forestry, ICT, Mining and Transport". The current (March 2011) Minister of Public Enterprises is Malusi Gigaba.[17]

The corporate entities that this department is responsible for are:

  • Alexkor – Mining sector (diamond mining)
  • Broadband Infraco – ICT sector (national backbone and international connectivity)
  • Denel – Aerospace and Defence sector (armaments manufacturer)
  • Eskom – Energy sector (national electricity utility)
  • PBMR – Energy sector (development of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor nuclear energy technology)
  • South African Airways – Transport sector (international airline)
  • SA Express – Transport sector (regional and feeder airline)
  • SAFCOL – Forestry sector (manages forestry on state owned land)
  • Transnet – Transport and related infrastructure sector (railways, harbours, oil/fuel pipelines and terminals)
  • Telkom SA – Telecommunications sector (national fixed line telephone network (PSTN))

Other corporate entities not under the Department of Public Enterprises include the South African Post Office and the South African Broadcasting Corporation.

Americas

Brazil

Government-owned companies are divided into public enterprises (empresa pública) and mixed-economy companies (sociedade de economia mista). The public enterprises are subdivided into two categories: individual – with its own assets and capital owned by the Union – and plural companies – whose assets are owned by multiple government agencies and the Union, which have the majority of the voting interest. Caixa Econômica Federal, Correios, Embrapa, and BNDES are examples of public enterprises. Mixed-economy companies are enterprises with the majority of stocks owned by the government, but that also have stocks owned by the private sector and usually have their shares traded on stock exchanges. Banco do Brasil, Petrobras, Sabesp, and Eletrobras are examples of mixed-economy companies.

Beginning in the 1990s, the federal government of Brazil launched a privatization program inspired by the Washington Consensus. Public-owned companies such as Vale do Rio Doce, Telebrás, CSN, and Usiminas (most of them mixed-economy companies) were transferred to the private sector as part of this policy.

United States

Government-Sponsored Enterprises

Government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) are a group of financial services corporations created by the United States Congress. The United States GSEs are private corporations owned by their stockholders, rather than government-owned corporations. Their primary function is to generate profits for their stockholders, but they are structured and regulated by the U.S. government to enhance the availability and reduce the cost of credit to targeted borrowing sectors. Congress created the first GSE in 1916 with the creation of the Farm Credit System; it initiated GSEs in the home finance segment of the economy with the creation of the Federal Home Loan Banks in 1932; and it targeted education when it chartered Sallie Mae in 1972 (although Congress allowed Sallie Mae to relinquish its government sponsorship and become a fully private institution via legislation in 1995). The residential mortgage borrowing segment is by far the largest of the borrowing segments in which the GSEs operate. Together, the three mortgage finance GSEs (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks) have several[quantify] trillion dollars of on-balance sheet assets. The federal government possesses warrants which, if exercised, would allow them to take a 79.9% ownership share in the companies. The federal government has not currently exercised these warrants.

Government sponsored enterprises include:

Federal Government Chartered and Owned Corporations

The federal government chartered and owned corporations are a separate set of corporations chartered and owned by the federal government, which operate to provide public services, but unlike the federal agencies (Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs), or the federal independent commissions (e.g., the Federal Communications Commission, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc.), they have a separate legal personality from the federal government, providing the highest level of political independence. They sometimes receive federal budgetary appropriations, but some also have independent sources of revenue. These include(as of this writing):

Federal Government Acquired Corporations

The federal government acquired corporations are a separate set of corporations that were not chartered or created by the federal government, but into which the federal government has obtained ownership and presently operates. These are corporations temporarily in possession of the government as a result of a seizure of property of a debtor to the government, such as a delinquent taxpayer. Usually these are awaiting auction, and most are too small to note.

Other Types in the United States

There exists a second level of sovereign government in the United States after the federal government, those of the several states of which compose the United States. State governments are bodies sovereign, like the federal government, and other sovereigns; they have sovereign existence deriving from the consent of the sovereign people of their territories who created them and wrote their state constitution; they are not bodies corporate, as they are not created by the acquis of the federal government and exist with or without that Government's consent. As sovereigns, they have the power to hold radical title to land, to exercise the four fundamental powers, taxation, eminent domain, police power, and escheat, as well as numerous other powers, including the power to grant charters, and implicit in that power to charter is the power to charter corporations, which they do, extensively. The vast majority of non-governmental corporations in the United States are chartered by the states of the United States, and not the federal government, this includes most charitable corporations (though some charities of national repute are chartered by the federal government, and not by a state government), non-profit corporations, and for-profit corporations. States, as sovereigns, also have the power to charter corporations that they own, control, or are responsible for the regulation and finance of. These include municipal corporations and state chartered and owned corporations. Municipal corporations are public corporations that have devolved, democratic control over local matters within a geographic region; they are often styled villages, towns, townships, boroughs, cities, or counties. Though these municipal corporations are often regulated and sometimes financed by the state government, and often can collect taxes, they are arms-length, non-sovereign, devolved public entities, and a state government which charters them is not legally responsible for their debts in the event of a municipal bankruptcy. State government chartered and owned corporations are numerous and provide public services. Examples include North Dakota Mill and Elevator and South Dakota Public Broadcasting. Generally speaking, a statute passed by a state legislature specifically sets up a government-owned company in order to undertake a specific public purpose with public funds or public property. Lotteries in the United States are also run by government corporations, such as the Georgia Lottery Corporation and many others.

There exists a third level of sovereign government in the United States as well, the sovereignty of the Native American tribal governments. Native American tribes are comprehended as ancient sovereigns, established by their sovereign people since time immemorial, and recognized as sovereign by the federal government of the United States as well as the several states, and as such, the Native American (and Alaska Native) tribal governments have rights appertaining to sovereigns, including the power to hold radical title to land, to exercise the four fundamental powers, taxation, eminent domain, police power, and escheat, as well as other powers, for instance, the power to charter corporations and undertake public undertakings that might benefit their tribal citizens, Native Americans and Alaska Natives also being citizens of their respective U.S. state, and also citizens of the United States. For example, a tribal council could establish a public service broadcaster along the lines of Ireland's Raidió Teilifís Éireannan, partially fund it with a television licence on tribal land and partially through advertising as a means of uniting the tribe and giving it a voice as well as a commercial venture.

The Alaska Natives are particularly advanced in using their tribal sovereignty to incorporate corporations that are owned by and for the benefit of their tribal citizens and often compete in highly competitive economic sectors through the Alaska Native Regional Corporations. The Native American tribes in the lower 48 states often use their sovereignty and their ability to charter to compete using regulatory easements; for instance, Native American tribal corporations often trade in goods that are highly taxed in surrounding states (such as tobacco), or engage in activities that surrounding states have (for reasons of public policy) forbidden, such as the operation of casinos or gaming establishments. Most of these endeavors have proven very successful for Native American tribal sovereigns and their tribal corporations, bringing wealth into the hands of Native Americans.

Uruguay

Uruguay had the first welfare state of Latin America under the presidency of José Batlle y Ordoñez in 1904. Government-owned corporations monopolize services such as electricity (UTE), land-line communications (Antel) and water (OSE). Antel competes with private corporations in the cell-phone lines and international telephony markets. In 1992, under the presidency of Luis Alberto Lacalle, the government attempted to privatize all its companies, following the neoliberal Washington Consensus. However, a referendum won by 75% of the population kept the companies in the hands of the government. By the end of his term, president Lacalle alleged that he had achieved a successful modernization of the companies, which had made them more efficient.

Summary

In this list, government-owned corporations are classified on their legal status: silver color represents legal monopolies, where no competition is permitted; light green represents a corporation that has private competitors; yellow means that although competition is legally permitted, there are no other corporations de facto; uncolored refers to a free market, regulated or not.

Government corporations by field and by country
Postal Railways Pharmacy Gambling Alcohol Health care Universities Telephone Broadcasting Oil & Gas Energy Water Airports Highways
Australia Yes (Australia Post) monopoly on postal delivery of letters to 250g mix (varies by State) mix (PBS funding only; no retail competition) mix (varies by State) no mix (Medicare) mix no mix (ABC, SBS) no mix (varies by State) mix (varies by State) mix (varies by State)
Brazil Yes (Correios) mix (pt:VALEC, pt:CBTU) no yes (Caixa Econômica Federal) mix (ethanol only) mix (SUS) mix mix (Telebras) mix mix (Petrobras) mix (Eletrobras) mix (varies by State) mix (Infraero) no
Belgium Yes (Bpost) yes (NMBS/SNCB) no mix (Nationale Loterij/Lotterie Nationale) no mix mix mix (Belgacom) mix (VRT, RTBF, BRF) no mix mix
Canada Yes (Canada Post) mix (Via Rail), passenger rail; freight is private. no varies by province varies by province (LCBO, SAQ, SLGA) yes 95% publicly governed charitable trusts varies by province (Sasktel) mix (CBC) private enterprise favored varies by province (Hydro-Québec, BC Hydro, Hydro One, Manitoba Hydro, Nalcor, SaskPower) varies by province publicly governed by local authority in trust; see above 95% provincial government owned; except 407 ETR
Chile Yes
(Correos de Chile)
yes (EFE) no mix no yes
(FONASA)
yes
no yes
(Televisión Nacional de Chile)
yes (ENAP) no no mix
(SCL, Etc.).
mix
Colombia Yes (4-72) no no mix (Etesa) varies by department Nueva EPS mix (Universidad Nacional), plus various local ones mix (Telefónica Telecom) (Empresas Públicas de Medellín) mix (Radio Televisión Nacional de Colombia) mix (Ecopetrol) (ISA Emgesa) mix
Czech Republic Yes (Česká pošta) yes (České dráhy) no yes (Sazka) no yes (VZP) yes (České Radiokomunikace) mix (Česká televize) (ČRo) no yes (ČEZ Group)
Finland De facto (Itella) de facto (VR) no yes
(Veikkaus, RAY, Fintoto)
yes (Alko) mix (municipal) yes mix (TeliaSonera) mix (YLE) de facto (Neste) mix (Fortum) yes (municipal) yes (Finavia) mix (Destia)
France Yes
(La Poste)
yes (SNCF) no mix
(Française Des Jeux)
no mix mix mix (Orange) mix (France Télévisions) no mix (Électricité de France) mix
Germany Mix
(Deutsche Post)
mix (DB) no no no mix (BG) mix mix (DTAG) mix (ARD) no mix (Stadtwerke Köln) mix
Greece De facto
(ELTA)
de facto (OSE, TrainOSE) no mix
(OPAP)
no mix (ESY) yes mix (OTE) mix (ERT) mix (ELPE) mix (DEI) mix
Iceland De facto (Íslandspóstur) no railways in Iceland no no gambling in Iceland yes (ÁTVR) mix mix no mix (RÚV) no oil industry in Iceland mix
India Yes (India Post) yes (Indian Railways) mix (IDPL) no no mix mix mix (BSNL) mix (Doordarshan) mix (ONGC), IndianOil yes
Ireland Yes (An Post) yes (Iarnród Éireann) no mix (Prize Bond) no mix mix no mix (RTE, TG4) no mix (ESB)
Italy De facto (Poste italiane) mix (FS) no yes (AAMS) no mix (SSN) mix no mix (RAI) mix (Eni) mix (Enel)
Indonesia Yes (Pos Indonesia) yes (PT Kereta Api) yes no no mix mix mix (Telkom Indonesia) mix mix (Pertamina) yes (Perusahaan Listrik Negara)
Japan Mix
(JapanPost)
mix (JR) no yes (JRA etc.) no mix mix mix (NTT) mix (NHK) no no
Korea, Republic of De facto
(Korea Post)
de facto
(Korea Railroad Corporation)
no yes (Kangwon Land Inc.) no de facto
(NHIS)
mix de facto
(KT Corporation)
mix
(KBS), (EBS), Etc.
de facto
(KOGAS)
de facto
(KEPCO)
de facto
(K-WATER)
yes
(ICN)
mix
(Korea Expressway Corporation)
Mexico Mix
(Servicio Postal Mexicano)
mix
(Ferrocarril Transistmico)
mix (e.g. in public hospitals) no no mix (Mexican Social Security Institute, Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers) mix (National Autonomous University of Mexico, National Polytechnic Institute and state universities among others) no mix
(Once TV México, Notimex, XEIMT-TV)
yes (Pemex) yes (electricity)
(Comisión Federal de Electricidad)
mix
(varies by state/municipality)
mix
(Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, Benito Juárez International Airport)
mix
(Caminos y Puentes Federales)
Netherlands No Mix (Nederlandse Spoorwegen), passenger rail. Freight is private no yes
(Holland Casino)
no mix yes no mix (Netherlands Public Broadcasting) no no yes
New Zealand Yes (NZ Post) yes (Kiwi Rail) no no no mix yes no mix (TVNZ) no mix (Genesis Power, Meridian Energy, Mighty River Power, Solid Energy, Transpower New Zealand Limited)
Norway Yes (Posten Norge) yes (NSB) no yes (Norsk Tipping) yes (Vinmonopolet) mix mix mix (Telenor) mix (NRK) mix (Statoil) yes (Statkraft, and various municipally owned companies)
Peru Yes (Serpost) no no no no yes (EsSalud) yes (local ones, including (Universidad Mayor de San Marcos) no yes (TV Peru) yes (Petroperú) yes (only in local water supply and sewage services, including Sedapal)
Philippines Yes (PhilPost) yes (PNR) no yes (PAGCOR) no yes yes (U.P.) no mix (PTV) mix (PNOC) mix (NAPOCOR)
Sweden De facto (Posten) de facto (SJ) mix (Apoteket) yes yes (Systembolaget) mix yes mix (Telia) mix (SVT) no mix (Vattenfall)
Thailand Yes (Post) yes (State Rail) no (Pharmacy) yes (State Lotto) Alcohol Permit mix (MOPH) mix mix (Telcom) mix (Thai Television) mix (PTT PCL) yes (Electric yes yes
Turkey Yes (PTT) yes (TCDD) no yes (Millî Piyango İdaresi) no mix mix no mix (TRT) mix (TPAO) mix mix (State Hydraulic Works)
United Kingdom Mix (Royal Mail) mix
(Northern Ireland Railways, East Coast) (Network Rail)
no mix (Premium Bond) no mix (NHS) mix (University of Buckingham, BPP Holdings) no mix (BBC) no no Mix
(Scottish Water, Northern Ireland Water)
mix
United States Yes (USPS, an agency) mix
(Amtrak), passenger rail; freight is private.
no Mix (All State Lotteries) varies by state (ABC store states) mix (Medicare) mix (U.S. military service academies, public universities) no mix (VOA) no mix (TVA) mix mix mix (U.S. Routes)
Uruguay Yes (Correo Uruguayo) yes (AFE) no mix (Casinos del Estado) mix mix mix mix (ANTEL) mix (Channel 5) mix (ANCAP) yes (UTE) yes

See also

Notes

References

. Alternate location:

Further reading

  • The Public Firm with Managerial Incentives by Elmer G. Wiens.
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