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TOS-1 Buratino
ТОS-1A — Russian 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher
Type Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin  Soviet Union /  Russia
Service history
In service 1988–present
Used by Soviet Union, Russian Federation
Wars Soviet-Afghan War, Second Chechen War, 2014 Iraq conflict[1]
Production history
Designer Omsk Transmash Design Bureau
Weight 45.3 t (100,000 lb)
Length 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
Width 3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)
Height 2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew 3

Caliber 220 mm (8.7 in)
Rate of fire 30 rounds/15 s
Effective firing range 500–3,500m (TOS-1)
6,000m (TOS-1A)

Engine V-84MS Diesel
840 hp (630 kW)
550 km (340 mi)
Speed 60 km/h (37 mph)

TOS-1 (Russian: ТОС-1 - тяжёлая огнемётная система, English: Heavy Fire System) is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications, in open country, and in lightly armoured vehicles and transport. First combat tests took place in 1988-1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.

The TOS-1 is not used by the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in NBC defense units (Russian: войскa радиационной, химической и биологической защиты (РХБЗ)).[2]


The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric warheads arose in the late 1970s. The combat system consisting of the combat vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.

The TOS-1 is intended to engage military personnel, equipment, and buildings, including fortified constructions. The combat vehicle acts within the combat order of infantry and tanks. The large mass of the launcher and the need for a high-level of protection (due to the relatively short range of 3,500 m (11,500 ft)) helped determine the use of the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The reloading vehicle TZM was built on the chassis of a cross-country truck KrAZ-255B and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher.

In 2001, the improved TOS-1A system entered service. the improved system's range has been extended to 6 kilometers and its ballistic computer has been upgraded.

The nickname Buratino matches the name of the hero of a Russian version of a Pinocchio-style tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), because of the big "nose" of the launcher.

Combat History

TOS-1s were first used in combat in the Panjshir valley by the Soviet Union. Later, they were prominently used in the Battle of Grozny in 1999 by the Russian Army.

TOS-1As were first used in combat in Iraq in the recapture of Jurf Al Sakhar on October 24, 2014 from ISIL forces.[3]

System description

The TOS-1A "Solntsepyok"(Russian: Солнцепёк, English: Blazing sun or Sunheat) system consists of the following items:[4][5]

  • The "combat vehicle" BM-1 (rus. Боевая машина) (Ob.634B) based on a modified T-72A chassis and fitted with a rotating launch system for 24 unguided thermobaric rockets. All rockets can be launched within 6 to 12 seconds. The launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system with ballistic computer, aiming sight and laser range finder 1D14. The other standard equipment consists of a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a navigation system GPK-59, radio station R-163-50U, intercom R-174 and smoke grenade launcher type 902G with 4 barrels. The 3-man crew is armed with one AKS-74, one RPKS-74, three RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades. The BM-1 is fitted with the same equipment as the T-72 tank (NBC protection, fire-fighting, observation etc.).
  • Two re-supply vehicles TZM-T (rus. Транспортно-заряжающая машина) (Ob.563), fitted with a 10 kN crane. Each vehicle carries 2x12 spare rockets and 400 litres of fuel for the BM-1 and has a combat weigh of 39 t (86,000 lb). The TZM-T has a crew of three, armed with two AKS-74s, one RPKS-74, five RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades.
  • A set of rockets NURS (rus. Неуправляемый реактивный снаряд) MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) and 3.7 m (12 ft 2 in) m long and weigh 173 kg (381 lb) and 217 kg (478 lb) respectively. The original rocket for the TOS-1A had a range of only 2,700 m (8,900 ft), but the improved version extends the range to 6,000 m (20,000 ft).


External links

  • Video of the TOS-1 in action (Russian)
  • GlobalSecurity profile
  • FAS profile
  • TOS-1A article on Military Today
  • TOS-1 article on Military Today
  • Detailed article on Rbase (Russian)
  • V. Kuzmin's photo blog about the 2010 Victory Parade in Moscow (Russian)


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  3. ^ Salami, Jassem Al. "Led by an Armored Bulldozer, Shia Militia Fought to Restore Their Credibility". War is Boring. Retrieved 27 November 2014. 
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  10. ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 - "TOS-1 Buratino Flamethrower | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
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