World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000165093
Reproduction Date:

Title: Taxiing  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Jay Jay the Jet Plane, Approach and Landing Tests, Takeoff and landing, Taxi positional awareness, Austral Líneas Aéreas destinations
Collection: Aircraft Operations
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


A privately owned Sea Vixen taxis back from an air show flight, with wings folding as it moves.

Taxiing, also sometimes written "taxying", is the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power, in contrast to towing or push-back where the aircraft is moved by a tug. The aircraft usually moves on wheels, but the term also includes aircraft with skis or floats (for water-based travel).

An airplane uses taxiways to taxi from one place on an airport to another; for example, when moving from a terminal to the runway. The term "taxiing" is not used for the accelerating run along a runway prior to takeoff, or the decelerating run immediately after landing.


  • Propulsion 1
  • Control 2
  • Hover taxi 3
  • Safety 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The thrust to propel the aircraft forward comes from its propellers or jet engines. Reverse thrust for backing up can be generated by thrust reversers such as on the C17 Globemaster, or reversible pitch propellers such as on the C130 Hercules. Most aircraft, however, are not designed to back up on their own and must be pushed back either by hand or by using an aircraft tug.

At low power settings, combustion aircraft engines operate at lower efficiency than at cruise power settings. A typical A320 spends an average of 3.5 hours a day taxiing, using 150 US gallons (570 L) of fuel. Hybrid electrically driven nosegear are under development to allow high use aircraft to shut down the engines during taxi operations.[1]

Electric taxiing was invented by Delos Aerospace and patented in the US in 2007. Electric taxiing will significantly reduce aircraft fuel burn which is estimated to be as high as 27% of total fuel burn for a 90-minute flight where waiting in queue adds to the time on the ground. Also tire pre-spin allows for reduced impulse stress applied to the main landing gear thus extending useful lifetime for the main landing gear, and reduces tire wear, while improving passenger comfort.


Aircraft on the right hand side has the right-of-way during taxiing.

Steering is achieved by turning a nose wheel or tail wheel/rudder; the pilot controls the direction travelled with their feet. Larger jet aircraft have a tiller wheel on the left side of the cockpit that acts as a steering wheel allowing the nosewheel to be turned hydraulically. Braking is controlled by differential toe or heel brakes. Not all aircraft have steerable wheels, and in some cases steering is solely by means of differential braking (all Van's aircraft for instance) or solely by means of the rudder (including all floatplanes).

Hover taxi

A Eurocopter EC120B hover-taxis

Skid equipped helicopters and other VTOL aircraft conduct hover taxiing to move in ground effect in the same manner that wheel-equipped aircraft ground taxi. In general hover taxis are conducted at speeds up to 20 kn (37 km/h), or below translational lift.[2]

The Bell CH-135 Twin Huey is hover taxied in a manner typical for skid-equipped aircraft of that size:


When taxiing, aircraft travel slowly. This ensures that they can be stopped quickly and do not risk wheel damage on larger aircraft if they accidentally turn off the paved surface. Taxi speeds are typically from 5 to 20 knots (9 to 37 km/h; 6 to 23 mph).[4][5]

Rotor downwash limits helicopter hover-taxiing near parked light aircraft.

The use of engine thrust near terminals is restricted due to the possibility of jet blast damage.

See also


  1. ^ "Innovation Focuses on A320 Taxi Burn". Retrieved 22 April 2011. (subscription required)
  2. ^ Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 263. Aviation Supplies & Academics, 1997. ISBN 1-56027-287-2
  3. ^ 10 Tactical Air Group: CFACM 40-35 CH-135 Standard Maneuver Guide, page 1-1, section 103 Taxiing (unclassified). Canadian Forced Air Command, 1984
  4. ^ "A Statistical Learning Approach to the Modeling of Aircraft Taxi-Time" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  5. ^ "Ramp-age". 2003-01-19. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.