World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Topical steroid

Article Id: WHEBN0020560400
Reproduction Date:

Title: Topical steroid  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Glucocorticoid, ATC code D07, Topical medication, Bullous pemphigoid, Allergic contact dermatitis, Large plaque parapsoriasis
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Topical steroid

Topical steroids are the topical forms of corticosteroids. Topical steroids are the most commonly prescribed topical medications for the treatment of rash, eczema, and dermatitis. Topical steroids have anti-inflammatory properties, and are classified based on their vasoconstriction abilities.[1] There are numerous topical steroid products. All the preparations in each class have the same anti-inflammatory properties, but essentially differ in base and price.

Medical uses

Weaker topical steroids are utilized for thin-skinned and sensitive areas, especially areas under occlusion, such as the armpit, groin, buttock crease, breast folds. Weaker steroids are used on the face, eyelids, diaper area, perianal skin, and intertrigo of the groin or body folds. Moderate steroids are used for atopic dermatitis, nummular eczema, xerotic eczema, lichen sclerosis et atrophicus of the vulva, scabies (after scabiecide) and severe dermatitis. Strong steroids are used for psoriasis, lichen planus, discoid lupus, chapped feet, lichen simplex chronicus, severe poison ivy exposure, alopecia areata, nummular eczema, and severe atopic dermatitis in adults.[1]

To prevent tachyphylaxis, a topical steroid is often prescribed to be used on a week on, week off routine. Some recommend using the topical steroid for 3 consecutive days on, followed by 4 consecutive days off.[2] Long-term use of topical steroids can lead to secondary infection with fungus or bacteria (see tinea incognito), skin atrophy, telangiectasia (prominent blood vessels), skin bruising and fragility.[3]

The use of the finger tip unit may be helpful in guiding how much topical steroid is required to cover different areas of the body.

Adverse effects

Classification systems

USA system

The USA system utilizes 7 classes, which are classified by their ability to constrict capillaries. Class I is the strongest, or superpotent. Class VII is the weakest and mildest.[8]

Group I

Very potent: up to 600 times stronger than hydrocortisone

Group II

Group III

Group IV

Group V

Group VI

Group VII

The weakest class of topical steroids. Has poor lipid permeability, and can not penetrate mucous membranes well.

  • Hydrocortisone 2.5% (Hytone cream, lotion, ointment)
  • Hydrocortisone 1% (Many over-the-counter brands)

Other countries

Most other countries, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, recognize only 4 classes.[9] In New Zealand I is the strongest, while in Continental Europe, class IV is regarded as the strongest.

Class IV

Very potent (up to 600 times as potent as hydrocortisone)

Class III

Potent (50-100 times as potent as hydrocortisone)

Class II

Moderate (2-25 times as potent as hydrocortisone)

  • Clobetasone butyrate (Eumovate Cream)
  • Triamcinolone acetonide (Aristocort Cream/Ointment, Viaderm KC Cream/Ointment, Kenacomb Ointment)

Class I

Mild

  • Hydrocortisone 0.5-2.5% (DermAid Cream/Soft Cream, DP Lotion-HC 1%, Skincalm, Lemnis Fatty Cream HC, Pimafucort Cream/Ointment)

Japan classification

Japan rates topical steroids from 1 to 5, with 1 being strongest.

Allergy associations

The highlighted steroids are often used in the screening of allergies to topical steroid and systemic steroids.[10] When one is allergic to one group, one is allergic to all steroids in that group.

Group A

Hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, cortisone acetate, tixocortol pivalate, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and prednisone

Group B

Triamcinolone acetonide, triamcinolone alcohol, amcinonide, budesonide, desonide, fluocinonide, fluocinolone acetonide, and halcinonide

Group C

Betamethasone, betamethasone sodium phosphate, dexamethasone, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and fluocortolone

Group D

Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate, hydrocortisone-17-valerate, alclometasone dipropionate, betamethasone valerate, betamethasone dipropionate, prednicarbate, clobetasone-17-butyrate, clobetasol-17-propionate, fluocortolone caproate, fluocortolone pivalate, and fluprednidene acetate

History

Corticosteroids were first made available for general use around 1950.[11]

See also

References


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.