World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Vortec

 

Vortec

GM Vortec engine families
GM 122 engine
Type RPO Name Displacement
I4 L43 2200 2,189 cc (2.189 L; 133.6 cu in)[1]
LN2 2200 2,189 cc (2.189 L; 133.6 cu in)[2]
GM Atlas engine
Type RPO Name Displacement
I4 LK5 2800 2,770 cc (2.77 L; 169 cu in)[3]
LLV 2900 2,921 cc (2.921 L; 178.3 cu in)[4]
I5 L52 3500 3,460 cc (3.46 L; 211 cu in)[5]
LLR 3700 3,651 cc (3.651 L; 222.8 cu in)[6]
I6 LL8 4200 4,160 cc (4.16 L; 254 cu in)[7]
Chevrolet Small-Block engine, Gen. I-E
Type RPO Name Displacement
V6 LB4 4300 4,300 cc (4.3 L; 260 cu in)
L35 4300 4,300 cc (4.3 L; 260 cu in)[8]
LF6 4300 4,300 cc (4.3 L; 260 cu in)
LU3 4300 4,300 cc (4.3 L; 260 cu in)[9]
LG3 4300 4,300 cc (4.3 L; 260 cu in)
V8 L30 5000 5,012 cc (5.012 L; 305.9 cu in)[10]
L31 5700 5,733 cc (5.733 L; 349.8 cu in)[10]
GM LS engine (Gen. III small block)
Type RPO Name Displacement
V8 LR4 4800 4,807 cc (4.807 L; 293.3 cu in)[11]
L33 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)[12]
LM7 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)[13]
LM4 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)
L59 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)[13]
LQ4 6000 5,964 cc (5.964 L; 363.9 cu in)[14]
LQ9 HO 6000 5,964 cc (5.964 L; 363.9 cu in)[15]
GM LS engine (Gen. IV small-block)
Type RPO Name Displacement
V8 LY2 4800 4,807 cc (4.807 L; 293.3 cu in)[16]
LH6 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)
LY5 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)
LMG 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)[17]
LC9 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)
LH8 5300 5,328 cc (5.328 L; 325.1 cu in)
L76 6000 5,967 cc (5.967 L; 364.1 cu in)[18]
LY6 6000 5,967 cc (5.967 L; 364.1 cu in)[19]
LFA 6000 5,967 cc (5.967 L; 364.1 cu in)
L92 6200 6,162 cc (6.162 L; 376.0 cu in)[20]
GM Big-Block engine
Type RPO Name Displacement
V8 L21 7400 7,439 cc (7.439 L; 454.0 cu in)
L29 7400 7,439 cc (7.439 L; 454.0 cu in)[10]
L18 8100 8,128 cc (8.128 L; 496.0 cu in)[21]

Vortec is a trademarked name for a line of piston engines for General Motors trucks. The name first appeared in 1988 on a 4.3 L V6 that used "vortex technology" to create a vortex inside the combustion chamber, creating a better air/fuel mix. Now it is used on a wide range of different engines. Modern Vortec engines are named for their approximate displacement in milliliters.

I4

2200

The Vortec 2200 (RPO codes L43 and LN2) is an OHV straight-4 truck engine. It is entirely different from the Iron Duke having been the last North American iteration of the GM 122 engine. The 2200 uses an iron block and aluminum 2-valve pushrod cylinder head. Output is 120 hp (89 kW) and 140 lb·ft (190 N·m). Displacement is 2,189 cc (2.189 L; 133.6 cu in) with an 89 mm (3.5 in) bore and 88.00 mm (3.465 in) stroke. 2200s were built in Tonawanda, New York.

LN2 applications:

L43 applications:

2800

The Vortec 2800, or LK5, is a DOHC 2.8 L straight-4 in the GM Atlas engine family. It produces 175 hp (130 kW) and 185 lb·ft (251 N·m) of torque. The Vortec 2800 is standard equipment on the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon. It is mated to either a 5-speed manual transmission built by Aisin, or a GM 4-speed Hydra-matic automatic transmission.

2900

The Vortec 2900, or LLV, is a DOHC 2.9 L straight-4 in the GM Atlas engine family. Displacement is increased from the Vortec 2800 it replaces to produce 185 hp (138 kW) and 190 lb·ft (258 N·m) of torque. First used in the 2007 Chevy Colorado, 2007 GMC Canyon, and 2007 Isuzu i-290.

I5

3500

The Vortec 3500, or L52, is a DOHC 3.5 L straight-5 in the GM Atlas engine family. It produces 220 hp (164 kW) and 225 lb·ft (305 N·m) of torque. The Vortec 3500 is optional on Chevy Colorado / GMC Canyon regular and extended cab trucks. It is standard on the Crew Cab Colorado/Canyon, and the Hummer H3.

3700

The Vortec 3700, or LLR, is a DOHC 3.7 L straight-5 in the GM Atlas engine family. Introduced in 2007, the engine has increased in displacement from 3.5 L (211 cu in) in the Vortec 3500 to 3.7 L (223 cu in), producing 242 hp (180 kW) and 257 lb·ft (348 N·m) of torque. This engine is offered with both an Aisin 5 speed manual and GM's HydraMatic 4L60e automatic transmission in the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon, Hummer H3, Hummer H3T and Isuzu i-370 trucks.

I6

4200

The Vortec 4200, or Atlas LL8, is a 4.2 L straight-6 in the GM Atlas engine family. It has four valves per cylinder, utilizes dual-overhead cams (DOHC) design, and features Variable Valve Timing on the exhaust cam, a first for GM Inline engines. Introduced in 2002 for the Chevrolet TrailBlazer, GMC Envoy, and Oldsmobile Bravada, the engine is also in use in the Buick Rainier, Saab 9-7, and the Isuzu Ascender. The engine was rated at 270 hp (201 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) in 2002 then 275 hp (205 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) in 2003–2005. In the 2006 model year the GMT360 platform received an increase to 291 hp (217 kW) and 277 lb·ft (376 N·m) . The Vortec I6 engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list every year since its introduction in 2002 through 2005.

Applications:

  • 2002 270 hp (201 kW), 275 lb·ft (373 N·m)
  • 2003–2005 275 hp (205 kW), 275 lb·ft (373 N·m)
  • 2006–2009 291 hp (217 kW), 277 lb·ft (376 N·m) (can vary slightly through the years due to the new SAE rating procedures)

It is also the platform upon which the Vortec 2800/2900 I4 and Vortec 3500/3700 I5 engines for the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon, Isuzu i-Series, and Hummer H3 are based. These engines are simply the 4.2L I6 LL8 minus a cylinder or two.

V6

4300

Main article: Chevrolet 90-Degree V6 engine

The Vortec 4300 is essentially a GM 350cui small-block V8 with two cylinders omitted from the design. 90° V6 truck engine, replacing the Chevrolet 250 in light trucks and 200 cu in (3.3 L) and 229 cu in (3.75 L) 90-degree V6s in passenger cars. The 4300 is based on the 350 cu in (5.7 L) Chevrolet small-block V8, and first appeared in 1985 with the throttle-body injected LB4 in passenger cars; light trucks and vans used Quadrajet carburetors for 1985. In 1991, the limited-edition GMC Syclone featured a 280 hp (210 kW) and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) turbocharged and intercooled LB4 with the first use of multi-point fuel injection on a Vortec V6. The central-port injected L35 (Vin 'W') debuted in 1992; the cylinder block was slightly changed, a balance shaft was added to remove minor vibrations, and better breathing yielded 200 hp (149 kW) . Another CPI engine, the LF6, joined in 1996 with the introduction of Vortec cylinder heads, while the LB4 was retired after 1998. In 2002, GM introduced a new multi-point injected LU3 engine, and a LG3 variant appeared soon after. This engine's origins date back to 1955, when the original Chevy small-block V-8 was introduced.

All Vortec 4300s use a cast iron block and heads with a 4 in (101.60 mm) bore and 3.48 in (88.39 mm) stroke,[22] both of which are the same as a 350, which gives them a displacement of 262.39 cubic inches (4,299.8 cc). Connecting rods still measure 5.7 in (144.78 mm) although the rod journal diameter is 2.25 in (57.15 mm). 1992 and later cylinder blocks used a different timing cover since these engines used a balance shaft (some 1992 production cylinder blocks for the LB4 with TBI induction used the 'traditional' front timing chain cover from the small block Chevrolet). This change created a situation where most aftermarket timing chain alternatives do not fit. This is true of gear drives and double roller chains. They are pushrod (center camshaft) engines with two valves per cylinder and are produced in Tonawanda, New York and Romulus, Michigan. Power output of the new LU3/LG3 engines is 200 hp (149 kW) to 215 hp (160 kW) and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) to 265 lb·ft (359 N·m). For the last years usages, the LU3 mades 195 hp (145 kW) @ 4600 rpm and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2800 rpm.[22]

4300 applications:

LU3 applications:

LB4 applications:

V8

4800

Generation III

LR4

The Vortec 4800 LR4 is a Generation III small block V8 truck engine. Displacement is 4.8 L (290 cu in) with a 96.01 mm (3.78 inch) bore and 83 mm (3.27 inch) stroke. It is the smallest of the Generation III Vortec truck engines and was the replacement for the 5.0 L 5000 L30. The LR4 engines from 1999-2000 produced 255 hp (190 kW) while the 2001 and above models made 270–285 hp (201–213 kW) and all have a torque rating between 285–295 lb·ft (386–400 N·m), depending on the model year and application. The 2005-2006 models made 285 hp (213 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m), LR4s are manufactured at St. Catharines, Ontario and Romulus, Michigan.

LR4 applications:

Generation IV

LY2

The Vortec 4800 LY2 was introduced in 2007 and has a cast iron block. Power output is 260–295 hp (194–220 kW) and torque is 295–305 lb·ft (400–414 N·m).

LY2 applications:

L20

The Vortec 4800 L20 makes more power and features variable valve timing. The system adjusts both intake and exhaust timing, but does not come with Active Fuel Management. The L20 has a cast iron block and power output is 260–302 hp (194–225 kW) while torque is 295–305 lb·ft (400–414 N·m). The Vortec 4800 base engines were dropped from the Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon in favor of the 5300 with Active Fuel Management.

L20 applications:

5000

The Vortec 5000 L30 is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5,013 cc. Bore is 95 mm (3.7 in), stroke is 88.4 mm (3.5 in). The compression ratio is 9.1:1.[23] It is a based on the Generation I small-block from Chevrolet. It was replaced by the 4.8 L 4800 LR4 for the 2003 full-size vans. In van configuration it produces 220 hp (164 kW) net flywheel at 4,600 rpm and 290 lb·ft (393 N·m) net flywheel torque at 2,800 rpm. The engine uses a hydraulic roller cam and high flowing, fast burn style vortec heads. Differences include bore and stroke, intake valve size, and smaller combustion chambers. L30 applications:

5300

Generation III

The Vortec 5300, or LM7/L59/LM4/L33, is a V8 truck engine. It is a longer-stroked (by 9 mm) version of the Vortec 4800 and replaced the 5700 L31. L59 denoted a flexible fuel version of the standard fuel LM7 engine. Displacement is 5.3 L (5,328 cc (325.1 cu in)) from 96.01 mm 3.78-inch (96 mm) bore and 92.00 mm (3.6 in) stroke 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke. Vortec 5300s are built in St. Catharines, Ontario and Romulus, Michigan.

LM7

The Vortec 5300 LM7 (VIN code 8th digit "T") was introduced in 1999, and can be considered the "garden variety" version of the Generation III 5.3 liter V8's. The 1999 LM7 engine produced 270 hp (201 kW) and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m), 2000-2003 engines made 285 hp (213 kW) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m). The 2004-2007 engines made 295 hp (220 kW) and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m), it has a cast iron block and aluminum heads.

LM7 applications:

L59

The Vortec 5300 L59 (VIN code "Z") is a flexible fuel version of the LM7. The 2002-2003 made 285 hp (213 kW) and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m), while the 2004-2007 L59s made 295 hp (220 kW) and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m).

L59 applications:

LM4

The Vortec 5300 LM4 (VIN code "P") is an aluminum block version of the LM7, and had a short production life. The LM4s made 290 hp (216 kW) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m), It should not be confused with the L33 described below.

LM4 applications:

L33

The Vortec 5300 L33 (VIN code "B") is an aluminum block version of the LM7, and was referred to as the Vortec 5300 HO in marketing materials. How ever it should be noted that the L33 uses a flat top piston from the 4.8L instead of the standard dish piston found in the LM7. This increased the compression from 9.5:1 to 10.0:1. Also the L33 had a specific camshaft not shared with any other engine, with lobe lift of 7.2 mm, valve timing unknown. As a result power increased by 15 hp (11 kW), to 310 hp (230 kW) and 335 lb·ft (441 N·m). It was only available on extended cab 4WD pickup trucks. Only 25% of trucks made in 2005 had the L33 engine.

L33 applications:

Generation IV

First introduced in 2005, the Generation IV Vortec 5300 engines share all the improvements and refinements found in other Generation IV engines. At present, four versions of the 5300 engine in production: 2 iron blocks (LY5 and LMG) and 4 aluminum blocks (LH6, LH8,LH9 and LC9). All versions feature Active Fuel Management except for the LH8, LH9, LMF.

LH6

The Vortec 5300 LH6 with Active Fuel Management replaced the LM4 for 2005, and was the first of the Generation IV small block V8 truck engines to go into production. The LH6 produced 300 hp (220 kW) and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m). It is the aluminum block counterpart to the LY5.

LH6 applications:

LY5

Introduced in 2007, the Vortec 5300 LY5 is the replacement for the LM7 Generation III engine. For SUV applications, it is rated at 320 hp (239 kW) and 340 lb·ft (461 N·m) of torque; for pickup truck applications, it is rated at 315–320 hp (235–239 kW) at 5200 rpm and 335–340 lb·ft (454–461 N·m) at 4000 rpm

LY5 applications:

LMG

The Vortec 5300 LMG is the flexible-fuel version of the LY5. Power and torque ratings for SUV and pickup truck applications are the same as each application's LY5 rating.

LMG applications:

LC9

The Vortec 5300 LC9 is the Flex-Fuel version of the LH6, and is found in 4WD models. SUV applications are rated at 320 hp (239 kW) @ 5400 rpm and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m) @ 4000 rpm of torque.[22] Pickup truck applications are rated at 315 hp (235 kW) @ 5300 rpm and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m) @ 4000 rpm of torque.[22]

LC9 applications:

LH8

The Vortec 5300 LH8 is a variant of the 5.3 L Gen IV small block V8 modified to fit in the engine bay of the GMT 345 SUV and GMT 355 trucks. It produces 300 hp (220 kW) at 5200 rpm and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m) at 4000 rpm. It has a displacement of 5,328 cc (325.1 cu in).[24]

LH8 applications:

5700

The Vortec 5700 L31 (Vin code 8th digit "R") is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5.7 L. It is the last production Generation I small-block from Chevrolet. The cylinder heads feature combustion chambers and intake ports very similar to those of the LT1 V8, but without the reverse-flow cooling. As such, the L31 head is compatible with all older small-blocks, and is a very popular upgrade. It offers the performance of more expensive heads, at a much lower cost. It does, however, require a specific intake manifold (a Vortec head has 8 bolts attaching the intake manifold as opposed to the traditional twelve bolts per head). The L31 was replaced by the 5.3 L 5300 LM7. The 2002 model year was the final year for the L31 5.7 L small block V-8 whose origins date back to 1955. The Vortec 5700 produces 255 hp (190 kW) to 350 hp (261 kW) at 4600 rpm and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m) to 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) of torque at 2800 rpm. It is currently being produced as a crate engine for marine applications and automotive hobbyists as the "ramjet 350" with minor modifications.

L31 applications:

TBI L31 applications

  • 1996 G-Series vans over 8,500 lb (3,856 kg) GVW w/ 4L80E transmission

Special applications

6000

Generation III

LQ4

The Vortec 6000 LQ4, is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5.97 L (364 cu in) from a 4.0-inch (101.6 mm) bore and 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke . It is an iron/aluminum (1999 & 2000 model year engines had cast iron heads) design and produces 300 hp (224 kW) to 325 hp and 360 lb·ft (488 N·m) to 370 lb·ft (502 N·m). LQ4s are built in Romulus, Michigan and Silao, Mexico.2013 model year produces 360 hp

LQ4 (VIN U) Applications:

LQ9

The Vortec HO 6000 or VortecMAX is a special high-output version of the Vortec 6000 V8 truck engine originally designed for Cadillac. This engine was introduced in other truck lines as VortecMAX for 2006. It features high-compression (10:1) flat-top pistons for an extra 10 hp (7 kW) and 10 lb·ft (14 N·m), bringing output to 345 hp (257 kW) and 380 lb·ft (515 N·m). LQ9s are built only in Romulus, Michigan.

LQ9 (VIN N) Applications:

Generation IV

LY6

The Vortec 6000 LY6 is a Generation IV small block V8 truck engine with a cast iron block. It shares the same bore and stroke as its LQ4 predecessor, and also features variable valve timing. 4.0 inch bore 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke

LY6 applications:

L76
See also the automotive L76

The Vortec 6000 L76 or new VortecMax is a Generation IV aluminum small block V8 truck engine based on the Holden L76 engine, and features variable cam phasing, along with Active Fuel Management. It can be considered the replacement for the Generation III LQ9 engine. It produces 367 hp (274 kW) at 5400 rpm and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m) at 4400 rpm. Production started in late 2006, and is only available with the new body style Silverado and Sierra. The final year for the option of the VortecMax engine was 2009 in the Silverado and Sierra. vin code (Y) L76 applications:

LFA

The Vortec 6000 LFA is a Generation IV small block V8 truck engine. The LFA variant is used in the GM's hybrid GMT900 trucks and SUVs, made of cast aluminum block and cylinder head. It compression ratio is 10.8:1. It produces 332 hp (248 kW) at 5100 rpm and 367 lb·ft (498 N·m) at 4100 rpm. Engine VIN code of 5.

LFA applications:

LZ1

The Vortec 6000 LZ1 is almost entirely based on its predecessor, the LFA, but with some revisions, such as including up-integrated electronic throttle control, long-life spark plugs, GM’s Oil Life System, Active Fuel Management and variable valve timing.[25] It has the same compression ratio, power and torque ratings as its predecessor, the LFA.

LZ1 applications:

6200

Generation IV

L92

The 2007 Cadillac Escalade has a 6.2 L Vortec 6200 (RPO L92) (≈376 cu in) engine. It is an all-aluminum design which, while still a pushrod engine, boasts variable valve timing, a first in a mass-produced non-overhead cam V8 engine. The system adjusts both intake and exhaust timing between two settings. This engine produces 403 hp (301 kW) and 415 lb·ft (563 N·m) in the GMC Yukon Denali/XL Denali, Sierra SLT (2009+), GMC Sierra Denali, and in the Cadillac Escalade. and makes an additional 2 lb·ft (2.7 N·m) torque in the Silverado and Sierra pickups, and 393 hp (293 kW) and 415 lb·ft (563 N·m) in the Hummer . It was also available in the Chevrolet Tahoe LTZ, with power ratings of 395 hp (295 kW) and 417 lb·ft (565 N·m) . The L92 was modified with Flex Fuel capability for 2009 and became the L9H, and was further modified with Active Fuel Management for 2010 (and becoming the L94) in the Cadillac Escalade and GMC Yukon Denali's.

Applications:

7400

L29

The Vortec 7400 L29 454 cu in was a truck version of the Chevrolet Big-Block engine. Introduced in 1996, it was produced for five years until being replaced by the Vortec 8100. Even though it was introduced as the Vortec 7400 in 1996, it was basically a 454 big-block with a hydraulic roller cam and parts more suitable for use in light duty trucks and more advanced technology.

L29 Applications:

The 7.4 L (454 cu in) V8 features MPFI (multi-port fuel injection) and 2 valves per cylinder. Among the many improvements was more power for the gasoline engines. The Vortec 7400 big block V8 has a 107.95 millimetres (4.3 inches) bore, 101.6 millimetres (4.0 inches) stroke, produces 290 hp (216 kW) at 4000 rpm and 410 lb·ft (556 N·m) at 3200 rpm.

L21

The Vortec 7400 L21 was a Commercial version of the Chevrolet Big-Block engine used in the Medium Duty truck platform. Its design shares much the L29 454, but with the addition of forged pistons and crankshaft, and coil near plug ignition. It has slightly reduced power compared to the L29 454 and uses a different PCM than the light duty trucks. The L21 was paired with the early 4 speed Allison automatic transmission or manual transmission depending on application.

L21 Applications:

1998–2001 Kodiak/Topkick 1998–2001 P12 HD Motorhome Chassis. The Workhorse W-20 is clone of the P12 Chassis...

8100

L18

The Vortec 8100 L18 is a V8 truck engine. It is a redesigned Chevrolet Big-Block engine and was introduced with the 2001 full-size pickup trucks. It is an all-iron engine (block and heads) with two valves per cylinder. It retains the same bore centers as the old 7.4 L big-blocks, but stroke was upped by 9.4 mm (0.4 in) to reach 8.1L (496cuin) for a total of 107.95 mm (4.3 in) bore and 111 mm (4.4 in) stroke. Power output ranges from 340 hp (254 kW) to 550 hp (410 kW) and torque from 455 lb·ft (617 N·m) to 690 lb·ft (936 N·m). Vortec 8100s were built in Tonawanda, New York. The Vortec 8100 is the engine used in the largest Uhaul, their 26-foot (7.9 m) truck. GM also sold the Vortec 8100 to Workhorse (now a division of Navistar) making it one of the most popular engine choices in gas powered Class A motorhomes during the first decade of this century. GM stopped installing big block V-8's in the Silverado HD trucks, when the GMT-800 series was discontinued in 2007. 8100 marine engines range from 400 to 600 hp (447 kW) and come with a stand-alone Engine Control Module (ECM). The last L18 was manufactured in December 2009.

Important differences between the Vortec 8100 and older big blocks include a changed firing order (1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3), a new 18-bolt head bolt pattern, different symmetrical intake ports, different oil pan rails and the use of metric threads throughout the engine. The fuel-injection system for the Vortec 8100 is nearly identical to that used on Gen III engines, right down to the fuel and spark tables in the ECU.[26]

L18 Applications:

See also

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.