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Vostok (rocket family)

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Title: Vostok (rocket family)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: R-7 (rocket family), Soyuz (rocket family), Molniya-L, Vostok-K, Soyuz-M
Collection: 1958 in Spaceflight, 1991 in Spaceflight, R-7 (Rocket Family), Space Launch Vehicles of the Soviet Union, Vostok Program
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Vostok (rocket family)

Vostok

Vostok 8K72K rocket on display in Moscow at the All Russia Exhibition Centre
Function Carrier rocket
Manufacturer RKK Energia
Country of origin USSR
Size
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to
LEO
4,725 kilograms (10,417 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-7
Comparable Atlas
Titan
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch sites Baikonur: LC-1/5, 31/6
Plesetsk: LC-41/1, 43/3, 43/4
Total launches Vostok-L: 4
Vostok-K: 13
Vostok-2: 45
Vostok-2M: 94
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Successes Vostok-L: 3
Vostok-K: 11
Vostok-2: 40
Vostok-2M: 92
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Failures Vostok-L: 1
Vostok-K: 2
Vostok-2: 5
Vostok-2M: 2
First flight 15 May 1960 (Vostok-L)
Last flight 29 August 1991 (Vostok-2M)
Notable payloads Vostok
Zenit
Meteor
Boosters (Vostok-K)
No boosters 4
Engines 1 RD-107-8D74-1959
Thrust 970.86 kN
Total thrust 3,883.4 kN
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
First Stage (Vostok-K)
Engines 1 RD-108-8D75-1959
Thrust 912 kN
Burn time 301 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Second Stage (Vostok-K)
Engines 1 RD-0109
Thrust 54.5 kN
Burn time 365 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX

Vostok (Russian Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite ("sputnik") and the first manned spacecraft in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48 people. An investigation into a similar – but avoided – accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide filters allowed the breakdown of the H2O2, thus causing the resultant explosion.

Contents

  • Variants 1
    • Vostok 8K72K 1.1
  • Gallery 2
  • See also 3

Variants

The major versions of the rocket were:

Vostok 8K72K

  • Stage Number: 1 - Strap-on Boosters; 4 x Vostok 8K72K-0
    • Gross Mass: 43,300 kg
    • Empty Mass: 3,710 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 4 x 99,000 kgf (971 kN) = 3.88 MN
    • Isp: 313 seconds (3.07 km/s)
    • Burn time: 118 s
    • Isp(sl): 256 seconds (2.51 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.68 m
    • Span: 8.35 m
    • Length: 19.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107-8D74-1959 per booster = 4
  • Stage Number: 2 - Core stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-1
    • Gross Mass: 100,400 kg
    • Empty Mass: 6,800 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 912 kN
    • Isp: 315 seconds (3.09 km/s)
    • Burn time: 301 s
    • Isp(sl): 248 seconds (2.43 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.99 m
    • Length: 28.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D75-1959
  • Stage Number: 3 - Final stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-2
    • Gross Mass: 7,775 kg
    • Empty Mass: 1,440 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 54.5 kN
    • Isp: 326 seconds (3.20 km/s)
    • Burn time: 365 s
    • Diameter: 2.56 m
    • Span: 2.56 m
    • Length: 2.84 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-0109

Gallery

See also

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