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Windham County, Vermont

Windham County, Vermont
Windham County courthouse in Newfane
Map of Vermont highlighting Windham County
Location in the state of Vermont
Map of the United States highlighting Vermont
Vermont's location in the U.S.
Founded 1781
Shire Town Newfane
Largest town Brattleboro
 • Total 798 sq mi (2,067 km2)
 • Land 785 sq mi (2,033 km2)
 • Water 13 sq mi (34 km2), 1.6%
 • (2014) 43,714
 • Density 55.6/sq mi (21/km²)
Congressional district At-large
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Windham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2000 census, the population was 44,513.[1] The shire town (county seat) is Newfane,[2] and its largest town is Brattleboro.


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Adjacent counties 2.1
    • Reservoirs 2.2
    • National protected areas 2.3
  • Demographics 3
  • Politics and government 4
  • County law enforcement 5
  • Transportation 6
    • Roads and highways 6.1
    • Bus 6.2
    • Rail 6.3
  • Communities 7
    • Towns 7.1
    • Villages 7.2
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


Fort Bridgman, Vernon, was burned in 1755, a casualty of the French and Indian War.[3] The Court of Common Pleas (established 1768) of the County of Cumberland (established July 3, 1766) of the Province of New York was moved to the town of Westminster in 1772. On July 4, 1776 the Province of New York became an independent state.

On January 15, 1777 Vermont declared its independence from New York, and functioned as an independent republic until statehood in 1791. Cumberland County (N.Y.) and Gloucester County (N.Y.) were extinguished when Vermont declared its independence from New York; Albany County (N.Y.) and Charlotte County (now Washington County, N.Y.) were eliminated from Vermont.[4]

Unity County was formed March 17, 1778, the eastern of the two original Vermont Republic counties.[5] Unity County was renamed Cumberland County on March 21, 1778.[6] Cumberland County and Bennington County (the eastern original county) exchanged land, adjusting their early border.[7] On February 16, 1781 Rutland County was created from Bennington County, and Orange, Windham and Windsor Counties were created from Cumberland County.[8] Some authors assume Cumberland County was renamed Windham County in 1781. Yet there are several original sources that indicate Cumberland County was dissolved rather than renamed.[9] This was probably to make a clean legal break from any connection with Cumberland County, New York, as some authors indicate the Cumberland County, Vermont Republic, records remained in Windham County. Newfane became the Shire Town of Windham County before 1812.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles (2,070 km2), of which 785 square miles (2,030 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.6%) is water.[10] It is the third-largest county in Vermont by land area.

Adjacent counties


National protected areas


As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 44,216 people, 18,375 households, and 11,447 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile (22/km²). There were 27,039 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile (13/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.72% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, and 1.42% from two or more races. 1.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.1% were of English, 13.3% Irish, 9.5% French, 8.9% American, 7.7% German, 6.0% Italian and 5.0% French Canadian ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.9% spoke English, 1.3% Spanish and 1.2% French as their first language.

There were 18,375 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.70% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 95.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,204, and the median income for a family was $46,989. Males had a median income of $31,094 versus $24,650 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,533. About 6.10% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.00% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over.

Politics and government

Presidential election results[17]
Year Democrat Republican
2012 73.1% 16,026 24.4% 5,347
2008 73.0% 17,585 24.9% 5,997
2004 66.4% 15,489 31.2% 7,280
2000 52.7% 11,319 34.2% 7,358

In 2006, four towns in Windham County,

  • The Windham Regional Commission
  • Windham County Sheriff's Department
  • The Mount Snow Valley Chamber of Commerce
  • The Historical Society of Windham County
  • Windham County history and genealogy

External links

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ [2] Archived February 4, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Slade, 70-73; Van Zandt, 64; Williamson, C., 82-84, map facing 95, 100-102, 112-113.
  5. ^ Vermont State Papers, 12:43-44.
  6. ^ Vermont State Papers, 3:13.
  7. ^ Vermont State Papers, 12:43-44
  8. ^ Vermont State Papers, 13:5-6
  9. ^ "Vermont: Individual County Chronologies". Vermont Atlas of Historical County Boundaries.  
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  16. ^ "American FactFinder".  
  17. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2011-06-11. 
  18. ^ Four Vermont Towns Vote to Impeach Bush Associated Press. Published on 2006-03-08. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  19. ^ 2004 Presidential General Election Results - Vermont
  20. ^ U.S. Election Atlas
  21. ^
  22. ^


See also

Villages are named places and sometimes formal census divisions, but may or may not be incorporated separately within a town's borders.


In Vermont, Towns are contiguous named places, subdivisions of Counties, where there is permanent, year-round human population. They are usually formally incorporated, governing themselves in open town meetings (with very few exceptions), and their usual elected administrative body is called a Selectboard. Though Brattleboro is by far the most populous town in the County, the historic 'shire town' (county seat) is Newfane, and Windham County Superior Court is still located there, as are the offices of the County Sheriff and the County Clerk.



Amtrak, the national intercity rail network, operates its Vermonter, running daily from St. Albans, Vermont to Washington, DC through Bellows Falls and Brattleboro with one daily northbound and southbound stop.


The national intercity bus service Greyhound serves Windham County with stops in Brattleboro and Bellows Falls daily.

Local bus service, particularly in and around Brattleboro and Bellows Falls, is provided by Connecticut River Transit's "The Current". The Current includes the entire Brattleboro BeeLine bus system, composed of the Red, Blue and White Lines, which also go to West Brattleboro and Hinsdale, New Hampshire. The Deerfield Valley Transit Association's fare-free MOOver serves mostly the southwestern portion of the county, especially the town of Wilmington and nearby ski areas. The MOOver also has bus connections to Bennington (in a patnership with the Green Mountain Express) to the west and Brattleboro, connecting to other local and intercity buses in both towns.


Windham County is crossed by:

Roads and highways


The Windham County Sheriff's Department is one source of law enforcement in this county especially in areas that have no local police departments. Where no coverage exists, the Vermont State Police are the de facto law enforcement agency.

County law enforcement

By some accounts, Windham County is now the 'bluest' county in the 'bluest' state in the USA. It was Vermont's President Bush, with Kerry carrying the state by 20.1% over Bush.[19] In 2008, Barack Obama won Windham by 48.1% margin over John McCain, with Obama winning by 37% over McCain statewide.[20] In 2012, Obama won Windham County by a 48.7% margin over Mitt Romney.[21] Ronald Reagan was the last Republican candidate for president to carry the county, winning it with 54% of the vote to 45% for Walter Mondale in 1984.[22]


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