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Zhu Zhi

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Subject: Zhu Ran, Sun Yi, Sun Ce's conquests in Jiangdong, Zhuge Jin, Zhou Tai
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Zhu Zhi

Zhu Zhi
General of Sun Quan
Born 156
Died 224 (aged 68)
Traditional Chinese 朱治
Simplified Chinese 朱治
Pinyin Zhū Zhì
Wade–Giles Chu Chi
Courtesy name Junli (Chinese: 君理; pinyin: Jūnlǐ; Wade–Giles: Chün-li)

Zhu Zhi (156–224),[1] courtesy name Junli, was a military general serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period. He was from present-day Anji County, Zhejiang.

Zhu Zhi served Sun Jian (Sun Quan's father) early on and participated in the campaign against Dong Zhuo. Sun Jian was succeeded by his eldest son, Sun Ce, who became a vassal under another warlord Yuan Shu. After Sun Quan became the ruler of Yang Province, Zhu Zhi was made Minister of War and Deputy Commander of Army Inspection as well as the general and Grand Administrator of Wu commandry, a position he would retain for his entire life. He adopted Zhu Ran as his son, as he had no heirs. In 222, he was made Marquis of Pilang, and, in 223, was made "General Who Guards the Kingdom" and "Lord of Guzhang". He died in 224.


Zhu Zhi served as a county clerk in his early career and was noted for his filial piety and modesty. He was soon made a prefecture official and followed Sun Jian on his rise to power. In 188, he was promoted to the rank of Major (司马) and led an army to attack rival armies in Changsha, Lingling, Guiyang (all in present-day Hunan). Zhu Zhi was a skilled and successful tactician, and was promoted to the rank of Commandant (都尉) by Sun Jian because of his victories. He assisted in Sun Jian's defeat of Dong Zhuo in the Battle of Yangren, and upon the army's entrance into Luoyang was promoted to the rank of Colonel (校尉), with special command to lead a regiment of cavalry to Xu Province and reinforce its governor, Tao Qian, in the fight against the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Following Sun Jian's death in 191, Zhu Zhi continued to serve under Sun Jian's successor Sun Ce, who at the time was loyal to the northern warlord Yuan Shu. Upon learning that Yuan Shu was not a man of integrity or administrative ability, Zhu Zhi advised Sun Ce to return to their territory in Wu and operate independently. Around this time, the Grand Tutor Ma Midi gave Zhu Zhi bureaucrat status and promoted him to Commandant of Wu Commandery. Zhu Zhi displayed ability and talent in all his missions, including an instance of protecting Sun Ce's family members, and was widely lauded as Sun Ce conquered the entire lower Yangtze region.

Sun Ce was assassinated by a servant of Xu Gong in 200 for reasons that have long been debated. Zhu Zhi stayed in Wu and, along with the renowned tactician Zhou Yu, served Sun Ce's successor Sun Quan. In 202, Sun Quan appointed Zhu Zhi as the Governor of Wu Commandery and promoted him to the rank of "Righteousness-Supporting" General (扶義將軍). Sun Quan gave Zhu Zhi feudal land holdings in Gelou, Youzhang, Wuyi, and Piling, allowed Zhu to enter semi-retirement.

Zhu Zhi continued to serve the Wu government: He participated in attacks against the Baiyue south and east of the Han Chinese-controlled territory of Wu, and 208 talked Sun Quan's younger brother Sun Ben out of sending his son as a hostage to Cao Cao in an attempt to improve diplomatic relations. Zhu Zhi was loved and respected by Sun Quan, who, after declaring himself 'King of Wu', would always greet Zhu in person when he visited the capital, bestowing gifts upon him and holding banquets in his honor.

In 222, Zhu Zhi was enfeoffed as the "Marquis of Piling" (毗陵侯). Sun Quan bestowed kingly gifts on Zhu Zhi (such as a golden seal) and extended Zhu's domain to encompass four counties, but Zhu was unwilling to assume greater holdings or positions. He retired to his home village of Guzhang for several years, and later died in 224.

Zhu Zhi had five sons: Zhu Ran (adopted), Zhu Cai, Zhu Ji, Zhu Wei, and Zhu Wan.

See also


  1. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 1170.  

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