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Title: Hdac9  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: SUV39H1, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CBX5 (gene), SIN3A, Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A
Collection: Ec 3.5.1, Hydrolases Acting on Nonpeptide C-N Bonds
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Histone deacetylase 9
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
EC number
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Histone deacetylase 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC9 gene.[1][2][3] Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. This gene is orthologous to the Xenopus and mouse MITR genes. The MITR protein lacks the histone deacetylase catalytic domain. It represses MEF2 activity through recruitment of multicomponent corepressor complexes that include CtBP and HDACs. This encoded protein may play a role in hematopoiesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts have been described for this gene but the full-length nature of some of them has not been determined.[3]


  • See also 1
  • Interactions 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5

See also


HDAC9 has been shown to interact with SIN3A,[4][5] Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1,[5] CBX5,[6] HDAC3,[5][7] Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A[8][9] and SUV39H1.[6]


  1. ^ Wang AH, Bertos NR, Vezmar M, Pelletier N, Crosato M, Heng HH, Th'ng J, Han J, Yang XJ (November 1999). "HDAC4, a human histone deacetylase related to yeast HDA1, is a transcriptional corepressor". Mol Cell Biol 19 (11): 7816–27.  
  2. ^ Sparrow DB, Miska EA, Langley E, Reynaud-Deonauth S, Kotecha S, Towers N, Spohr G, Kouzarides T, Mohun TJ (November 1999). "MEF-2 function is modified by a novel co-repressor, MITR". EMBO J 18 (18): 5085–98.  
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HDAC9 histone deacetylase 9". 
  4. ^ Koipally, Joseph; Georgopoulos Katia (June 2002). "Ikaros-CtIP interactions do not require C-terminal binding protein and participate in a deacetylase-independent mode of repression". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (26): 23143–9.  
  5. ^ a b c Petrie, Kevin; Guidez Fabien; Howell Louise; Healy Lyn; Waxman Samuel; Greaves Mel; Zelent Arthur (May 2003). "The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (18): 16059–72.  
  6. ^ a b Zhang, Chun Li; McKinsey Timothy A; Olson Eric N (October 2002). "Association of class II histone deacetylases with heterochromatin protein 1: potential role for histone methylation in control of muscle differentiation". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (20): 7302–12.  
  7. ^ Zhou, X; Richon V M; Rifkind R A; Marks P A (February 2000). "Identification of a transcriptional repressor related to the noncatalytic domain of histone deacetylases 4 and 5".  
  8. ^ Miska, E A; Karlsson C; Langley E; Nielsen S J; Pines J; Kouzarides T (September 1999). "HDAC4 deacetylase associates with and represses the MEF2 transcription factor". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 18 (18): 5099–107.  
  9. ^ Lemercier, C; Verdel A; Galloo B; Curtet S; Brocard M P; Khochbin S (May 2000). "mHDA1/HDAC5 histone deacetylase interacts with and represses MEF2A transcriptional activity". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (20): 15594–9.  

Further reading

  • Marks PA, Richon VM, Rifkind RA (2000). "Histone deacetylase inhibitors: inducers of differentiation or apoptosis of transformed cells.". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92 (15): 1210–6.  
  • Verdin E, Dequiedt F, Kasler HG (2003). "Class II histone deacetylases: versatile regulators.". Trends Genet. 19 (5): 286–93.  
  • "Toward a complete human genome sequence.". Genome Res. 8 (11): 1097–108. 1999.  
  • Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, et al. (1999). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XI. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.". DNA Res. 5 (5): 277–86.  
  • Miska EA, Karlsson C, Langley E, et al. (1999). "HDAC4 deacetylase associates with and represses the MEF2 transcription factor.". EMBO J. 18 (18): 5099–107.  
  • Zhou X, Richon VM, Rifkind RA, Marks PA (2000). "Identification of a transcriptional repressor related to the noncatalytic domain of histone deacetylases 4 and 5.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (3): 1056–61.  
  • Youn HD, Grozinger CM, Liu JO (2000). "Calcium regulates transcriptional repression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 by histone deacetylase 4.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (29): 22563–7.  
  • Zhang CL, McKinsey TA, Lu JR, Olson EN (2001). "Association of COOH-terminal-binding protein (CtBP) and MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) contributes to transcriptional repression of the MEF2 transcription factor.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (1): 35–9.  
  • Fischle W, Dequiedt F, Fillion M, et al. (2001). "Human HDAC7 histone deacetylase activity is associated with HDAC3 in vivo.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (38): 35826–35.  
  • Zhou X, Marks PA, Rifkind RA, Richon VM (2001). "Cloning and characterization of a histone deacetylase, HDAC9.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (19): 10572–7.  
  • Koipally J, Georgopoulos K (2002). "Ikaros-CtIP interactions do not require C-terminal binding protein and participate in a deacetylase-independent mode of repression.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (26): 23143–9.  
  • Kirsh O, Seeler JS, Pichler A, et al. (2002). "The SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2 promotes modification of the HDAC4 deacetylase.". EMBO J. 21 (11): 2682–91.  
  • Zhang CL, McKinsey TA, Olson EN (2002). "Association of class II histone deacetylases with heterochromatin protein 1: potential role for histone methylation in control of muscle differentiation.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (20): 7302–12.  
  • Hoogeveen AT, Rossetti S, Stoyanova V, et al. (2002). "The transcriptional corepressor MTG16a contains a novel nucleolar targeting sequence deranged in t (16; 21)-positive myeloid malignancies.". Oncogene 21 (43): 6703–12.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903.  
  • Petrie K, Guidez F, Howell L, et al. (2003). "The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (18): 16059–72.  

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