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World Health Organization : Year 2006 ; The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases Sdr Seb Rp, No. 06.1 - in English: Gender and Tuberculosis ; Cross-Site Analysis and Implications of a Multi-Country Study in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Colombia

By Julia Kemp, Ph. D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000234628
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 2006 ; The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases Sdr Seb Rp, No. 06.1 - in English: Gender and Tuberculosis ; Cross-Site Analysis and Implications of a Multi-Country Study in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Colombia  
Author: Julia Kemp, Ph. D.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Ph. D, J. K. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 2006 ; The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases Sdr Seb Rp, No. 06.1 - in English. Retrieved from http://self.gutenberg.org/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
ABSTRACT Although more men than women are diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), more than half a million women die each year from this disease. The higher proportion of male cases consistently reported by TB programmes may accurately reflect a greater prevalence among men, or it may be an artifact of persisting geographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and health service- related barriers that disproportionately affect timely diagnosis and treatment in women. Despite notable achievements in expanding and implementing directly-observed treatment, short course (DOTS) programmes over the past decade, evidence indicates that gender-related barriers and questions about their magnitude and nature persist. Gender differentials can occur at different levels of TB control, as they affect patients’ ability to access appropriate care, undergo examination, submit sputum for microscopic testing, and to initiate and complete treatment. The possible influence of gender on TB and TB control needs to be considered (Somma et al., 2005). The WHO/TDR-sponsored research presented in this report addressed practical questions about the role of gender in TB and TB control in four low- to middle-income countries of Asia (Bangladesh and India), Africa (Malawi), and South America (Colombia).

Table of Contents
Table of contents LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 - Sociocultural context of gender, health, and TB . . . . . . . 13 - Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 - Case finding and treatment delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 - Case holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 RESEARCH SITES AND METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 - Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 - India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 - Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 - Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 - Study design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 - Plan of multi-method studies at four sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 - Focus groups: community perceptions of TB and health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 - Review of registry data from TB programmes . . . . . . . . . . . 28 - Clinic observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 - Outpatient survey of TB patients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 - Clinical cultural epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 - Key findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 - Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 APPENDIX: ADDITIONAL DATA TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

 

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