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Some Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-Algebraic Structures

By Smarandache, Florentin

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Book Id: WPLBN0002828472
Format Type: PDF eBook:
File Size: 1.10 MB
Reproduction Date: 8/2/2013

Title: Some Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-Algebraic Structures  
Author: Smarandache, Florentin
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Education, Algebra
Collections: Authors Community, Mathematics
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Public Library
Member Page: Florentin Smarandache


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Smarandache, B. F., & Vasantha Kandasamy, W. B. (2013). Some Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-Algebraic Structures. Retrieved from

This book has seven chapters. Chapter one provides several basic notions to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic N-groups and gives several examples. The third chapter deals with neutrosophic semigroups and neutrosophic N-semigroups, giving several interesting results. Chapter four introduces neutrosophic loops and neutrosophic N-loops. Chapter five just introduces the concept of neutrosophic groupoids and neutrosophic Ngroupoids. Sixth chapter innovatively gives mixed neutrosophic structures and their duals. The final chapter gives problems for the interested reader to solve. Our main motivation is to attract more researchers towards algebra and its various applications.

In this book, for the first time we introduce the notion of neutrosophic algebraic structures for groups, loops, semigroups and groupoids and also their neutrosophic N-algebraic structures.

1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties It is a well-known fact that groups are the only algebraic structures with a single binary operation that is mathematically so perfect that an introduction of a richer structure within it is impossible. Now we proceed on to define a group. DEFINITION 1.1.1: A non empty set of elements G is said to form a group if in G there is defined a binary operation, called the product and denoted by '•' such that

Table of Contents
Preface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties 7 1.2 Semigroups and N-semigroups 11 1.3 Loops and N-loops 12 1.4 Groupoids and N-groupoids 25 1.5 Mixed N-algebraic Structures 32 Chapter Two NEUTROSOPHIC GROUPS AND NEUTROSOPHIC N-GROUPS 2.1 Neutrosophic Groups and their Properties 40 2.2 Neutrosophic Bigroups and their Properties 52 2.3 Neutrosophic N-groups and their Properties 68 Chapter Three NEUTROSOPHIC SEMIGROUPS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 3.1 Neutrosophic Semigroups 81 3.2 Neutrosophic Bisemigroups and their Properties 88 3.3 Neutrosophic N-Semigroup 98 Chapter Four NEUTROSOPHIC LOOPS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 4.1 Neutrosophic loops and their Properties 113 4.2 Neutrosophic Biloops 133 4.3 Neutrosophic N-loop 152 Chapter five NEUTROSOPHIC GROUPOIDS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 5.1 Neutrosophic Groupoids 171 5.2 Neutrosophic Bigroupoids and their generalizations 182 Chapter Six MIXED NEUTROSOPHIC STRUCTURES 187 Chapter Seven PROBLEMS 195 REFERENCE 201 INDEX 207 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 219


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