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The Renaissance of Science: The Story of the Atom, Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics

By Martini, Albert, Dr.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004450901
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 178.60 MB
Reproduction Date: 5/27/2016

Title: The Renaissance of Science: The Story of the Atom, Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics  
Author: Martini, Albert, Dr.
Volume: Revised Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science, Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2016
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

Description
This book presents the fundamental scientific developments in mathematics, physics and astronomy from the Classic Greek Era to the present time. It discusses and illustrates the 2,000-year history in the development of the great ideas, concepts and laws that revolutionized our scientific world. It also emphasizes how the new scientific concepts contributed to the logical development of the various sciences. It presents the development of the atomic theory from the Classic Greek Era to John Dalton’s atomic model and into the 20th century with the new quantized atomic model developed by Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr and Max Planck. In the area of mathematics, it discusses the development of the theory of numbers and the various mathematical sciences. In the area of astronomy, it presents the development of astronomy and the various theories on the origin of our universe. In the area of physics, it discuses the development of the physical sciences with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the mechanical world of Sir Isaac Newton, the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and the quantum world of the atom from Max Planck to Werner Heisenberg.

Summary
This is a scientific and historical book in the areas of mathematics, physics and astronomy, which presents the lives and accomplishments of over 200 scientists and how their ideas contributed to the development of our scientific world. The scientific accomplishments are presented chronologically and using over 200 pictures and diagrams to illustrate their logical development. The concepts in mathematics, physics and astronomy are frequently interrelated to justify their usefulness along the centuries of development. This book is essentially a labor of love on the presentation of the magnificent scientists and their fabulous accomplishments responsible for the development of our modern scientific world.

Excerpt
OUR PRODIGIOUS ATOM AND ITS MEANING THE INFINITELY SMALL ATOM IS THE INFINITELY LARGE SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND WISDOM THE ATOM REPRESENTS THE PRODIGIOUS AND SUPERLATIVE UNIFIED CONCEPT OF OUR UNIVERSE THE ATOM IS THE PERFECT NATURAL MACHINE THAT FUNCTIONS WITH MAGNIFICENT BALANCE AND HARMONY AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE ATOM IS A FABULOUS CHUNK OF MATTER-ENERGY CONTINUUM WITH A PRODIGIOUS SELF-SUSTAINING PERPETUAL MOTION THE ATOM IS THE EMBODIMENT OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND IT REPRESENTS A PIECE OF THE SUN AND LIFE ITSELF THE ATOM IS THE UNIVERSAL BUILDING BLOCK OF OUR MATTER-ENERGY CONTINUUM THE ATOM IS THE FUNDAMENTAL AND BOUNDLESS SOURCE OF THE ENERGY THAT POWERS AND GUIDES OUR ENTIRE UNIVERSE E = MC2 ENERGY OF THE ATOM CALCULATED FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW OR E = (ENERGY/ATOM)(ATOMS/UNIT MATTER)(TOTAL MATTER) = (ENERGY/ATOM)(6.022 X 1023 ATOMS/MOLE)(TOTAL N0 OF MOLES) ENERGY OF THE ATOM CALCULATED FROM THE CHEMISTRY POINT OF VIEW THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS THROUGH THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES OUR LIVES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE THE ATMOSPHERE, OUR SOURCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE REQUIRED FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND OXYGEN REQUIRED FOR RESPIRATION THE OCEANS AND OTHER BODIES OF WATER AS THE BASIC SOURCE OF LIFE SUSTAINING WATER THE EARTH, OUR SOURCE OF MINERALS AND CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, WHICH SUSTAIN LIFE ON OUR PLANET AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS THE STORY OF THE ATOM MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS OF OUR UNIVERSE 9 OUR MIND AND ITS ADVENTURE INTO THE WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE 12 MATTER - ENERGY - SPACE - TIME 14 WHAT IS MATTER ? 16 WHAT IS ENERGY ? 18 The FOUR FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN NATURE 19 THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE 19 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE (or Lorentz Force) 20 THE WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE 21 THE STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE , E = MC2 21 WHAT ABOUT SPACE AND TIME ? 23 WHAT IS SPACE ? 24 THE COSMIC SPACE 26 NEWTON’S SPACE 27 EINSTEIN’S SPACE 28 THE GRAVITATIONAL SPACE 31 THE SUBATOMIC SPACE OR QUANTUM SPACE 33 THE EMPTY SPACE 34 THE EMPTY SPACE WITHIN THE ATOM 38 WHAT IS TIME ? 40 WHAT IS QUANTUM MECHANICS ? 45 WHAT IS THE STRING THEORY ? 46 WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE AND A SINGULARITY ? 48 UNIVERSE VS. MULTIVERSE ? 49 AN ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 51 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND MATHEMATICS 57 INTRODUCTION 57 THE EARLY STORY OF MATHEMATICS 58 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA 60 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN. 61 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN 61 APOLLONIUS (262 - 190 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN 61 ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 62 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AD) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 62 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE MEDIEVAL AGE 63 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUMBER THEORY AND MATHEMATICS 64 THE THEORY OF NUMBERS 64 KINDS OF NUMBERS 64 THE KINDS OF NUMBERS THAT WE USE TODAY 67 THE HIERARCHY OR ORDER OF MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS 68 HOW DO WE USE NUMBERS ? 69 HOW THE METRIC SYSTEM WORKS 71 THE ORIGIN OF NUMBERS 73 THE BABYLONIANS 73 THE EGYPTIANS AND THEIR PYRAMIDS 73 THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION IN THE YUCATAN PENINSULA 74 THE ROMAN NUMERALS 74 THE ARABIC/HINDU NUMBERS AND OUR DECIMAL SYSTEM 75 THE ORIGIN OF THE BRANCHES OF MATHEMATICS 76 THE ORIGIN OF ARITHMETIC 76 THE ORIGIN OF GEOMETRY 76 THE ORIGIN OF TRIGONOMETRY 77 THE ORIGIN OF ALGEBRA 78 THE ORIGIN OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 78 THE ORIGIN OF CALCULUS 79 THE PROPERTIES OF THE DIFFERENT MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 80 WHAT IS ARITHMETIC ? 81 WHAT IS GEOMETRY ? 81 WHAT IS TRIGONOMETRY ? 82 WHAT IS ALGEBRA ? 83 WHAT IS ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ? 83 WHAT IS CALCULUS ? 86 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA 87 LEONARDO FIBONACCI (1170 - 1240) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN 88 NICCOLO TARTAGLIA (1499 - 1557) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN 89 GIROLAMO CARDANO (1501 - 1576) ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN 91 FRANCISCUS VIETA (1540 - 1603) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN. 92 SIMON STEVINUS (1548 - 1620) BELGIAN-DUTCH MATHEMATICIAN 92 JOHN NAPIER (1550 - 1617) - SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN 93 HENRY BRIGGS (1561 - 1630) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN 94 WILLIAM OUGHTRED (1574 - 1660) ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN 96 BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN 97 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON 99 RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) - FRENCH PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN 100 PIERRE DE FERMAT (1601 - 1665) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN. 102 SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 103 GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ (1646 - 1716) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER 105 LEONHARD EULER (1707 - 1783) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN 106 DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700 - 1782) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN 108 JEAN D’ALEMBERT (1717 - 1783) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN 110 JOHANN HEINRICH LAMBERT (1728 - 1777) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 110 JOSEPH LAGRANGE (1736 - 1813) - ITALIAN-FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER 111 PIERRE LAPLACE (1749 - 1827) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER 113 ADRIEN MARIE LEGENDRE (1752 - 1833) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN 114 JEAN BAPTISTE FOURIER (1768 - 1830) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN 115 THE MATHEMATICS OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES 117 JOHANN KARL GAUSS (1777 - 1855) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 118 NIKOLAI LOBACHEVSKI (1792 - 1856) RUSSIAN MATHEMATICIAN 120 JANOS BOLYAI (1802 - 1860) - HUNGARIAN MATHEMATICIAN 122 GEORG FRIEDRICH RIEMANN (1826 - 1866) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 124 CHRISTIAN FELIX KLEIN (1849 - 1925) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 125 NIELS HENRIK ABEL (1802 - 1829) NORWEGIAN MATHEMATICIAN 126 CARL GUSTAV JACOBI (1804 - 1851) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 127 KARL T. WEIERSTRASS (1815 - 1897) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 128 SIR WILLIAM R. HAMILTON (1805 - 1865) IRISH MATHEMATICIAN 129 CHARLES HERMITE (1822 - 1901)- FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN 129 GEORG CANTOR (1845 - 1918) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER 131 CARL L. VON LINDEMANN (1852 - 1939) GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 132 JULES HENRI POINCARE (1854 - 1912) FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 133 DAVID HILBERT (1862 - 1943) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 136 HERMANN MINKOWSKI (1864 - 1909) RUSSIAN-GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN 138 BERTRAND A. RUSSELL (1872 - 1970) ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER 140 ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD (1861 - 1947) ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER 142 KURT FRIEDRICH GODEL (1906 - 1978) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN 145 NORBERT WIENER (1894 - 1964) AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN 147 JOHN VON NEUMANN (1903 - 1957) HUNGARIAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN 148 CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND MATHEMATICS 150   THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ASTRONOMY 154 INTRODUCTION 154 THE ASTRONOMY OF THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA 157 ARISTARCHUS (310 - 230 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER 158 HIPPARCHUS (190 - 120 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER 159 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AD) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 160 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA & MODERN ASTRONOMY 162 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) - POLISH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 163 NICHOLAS OF CUSA (1401 - 1464) - GERMAN PHILOSOPHER AND ASTRONOMER 166 TYCHO BRAHE (1546 - 1601) - DANISH ASTRONOMER. 166 JOHANN KEPLER (1571 - 1630) - GERMAN MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER 169 KEPLER’S THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION 172 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN ASTRONOMER, PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 175 SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) - ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 179 NEWTON’S SCHOOL YEARS AND BACK TO HIS RURAL HOME 180 SOME OF NEWTON’S FANTASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS 180 NEWTON INVENTED HIS REFLECTING TELESCOPE 180 NEWTON CHARACTERIZED THE TRUE NATURE OF LIGHT 180 NEWTON CREATED HIS NEW MATHEMATICS OF FLUXIONS 181 NEWTON DEVELOPED HIS THREE LAWS OF MOTION 181 NEWTON CREATED HIS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 181 NEWTON AND ALCHEMY 183 NEWTON’S PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA 184 NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION 185 NEWTON’S FIRST LAW 185 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW 185 NEWTON’S THIRD LAW 186 NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 186 JOSEPH L. LAGRANGE (1736 - 1813) - ITALIAN-FRENCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 189 PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE (1749 - 1827) FRENCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 190 UNITING ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 192 EINSTEIN’S NEW PHYSICS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY 195 THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 198 THE QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 198 THE MODERN ASTRONOMY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 203 GEORGE ELLERY HALE (1868 - 1938) AMERICAN SOLAR ASTRONOMER 205 A FIXED UNIVERSE VS. AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE 207 AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE VS. A STEADY- STATE THEORY 211 WILLEM DE SITTER (1872 - 1934) - DUTCH ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN 215 SIR ARTHUR STANLEY EDDINGTON (1882 - 1944) - ENGLISH ASTROPHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 216 EDWIN POWELL HUBBLE (1889 - 1953) AMERICAN ASTRONOMER 219 WALTER BAADE (1893 - 1960) GERMAN-AMERICAN ASTRONOMER 222 SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON (1892 - 1965) ENGLISH PHYSICIST 225 GEORGES LEMAITRE (1894 - 1966) BELGIAN ASTRONOMER AND PRIEST 227 GEORGE GAMOW (1904 - 1968) RUSSIAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST 231 THOMAS GOLD (1920 - 2004) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN ASTRONOMER 233 SIR FRED HOYLE (1915 - 2001)- ENGLISH ASTRONOMER. 235 CARL SAGAN (1934 - 1996) - AMERICAN ASTROPHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST 237 ARNO ALLAN PENZIAS (1933 - ) - AMERICAN PHYSICIST AND RADIO ASTRONOMER 239 SHELDON LEE GLASHOW (1932 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 241 ROGER PENROSE (1931 - ) ENGLISH MATHEMATICAL PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 242 STEVEN WILLIAM HAWKING (1942 - ) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST 243 EDWARD WITTEN (1951 - ) - AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST, MATHEMATICIAN AND COSMOLOGIST 247 ALAN HARVEY GUTH (1947 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST AND COSMOLOGIST 248 STEVEN WEINBERG (1933 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 249 GABRIELE VENEZIANO (1942 - ) ITALIAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 250 LEONARD SUSSKIND (1940 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 251 JOHN HENRY SCHWARZ (1941 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 253 MICHAEL BORIS GREEN (1946 - ) - BRITISH PHYSICIST 253 DAVID JONATHAN GROSS (1941 - ) AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 254 CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ASTRONOMY 255 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 259 THE STORY OF THE ATOM & THE PHYSICAL WORLD 265 INTRODUCTION 265 THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD 267 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER 267 EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER 270 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND NATURALIST 271 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND NATURALIST 271 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN 271 APOLLONIUS (262 - 190 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN 272 ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER AND GEOGRAPHER 272 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC)- GREEK MATHEMATICIAN 272 ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) GREEK MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 273 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100 - 170 AC) - GREEK ASTRONOMER 275 CTESIBIUS (285 - 222 BC)- GREEK INVENTOR 275 THE MEDIEVAL ERA AND THE PHYSICAL WORLD 276 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA AND MODERN PHYSICS 278 LEONE BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404 - 1472) ITALIAN ARTIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 280 SIMON STEVINUS (1548 - 1620) FLEMISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 281 LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452 - 1519) ITALIAN ARTIST, SCIENTIST AND MILITARY ENGINEER 282 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) ITALIAN ASTRONOMER, PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 284 THE ISOCHRONISM OF THE PENDULUM 287 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION OF FALLING BODIES 289 VELOCITY VERSUS ACCELERATION 291 ASTRONOMY AND THE TELESCOPE 293 GALILEO’S TELESCOPE 294 EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI (1608 - 1647) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 296 BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 299 CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629 - 1695) DUTCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 302 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 305 ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 311 GABRIEL D. FAHRENHEIT (1686 - 1736) GERMAN-DUTCH PHYSICIST 316 ANDERS CELSIUS (1701 - 1744) - SWEDISH ASTRONOMER 317 THE STORY OF THERMODYNAMICS 320 ANCIENT IDEAS FROM THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA 321 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ERA AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 322 THERMODYNAMICS AND THE CONCEPT OF KINETIC ENERGY 323 THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 324 FIRST LAW - THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 324 SECOND LAW - THE CONVERSION OF HEAT ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL WORK 324 THIRD LAW - THE ENTROPY PRINCIPLE 324 NICOLAS LEONARD CARNOT (1796 - 1832) FRENCH PHYSICIST 326 GUSTAVE GASPARD DE CORIOLIS (1792 - 1843) FRENCH PHYSICIST 328 BENOIT PIERRE CLAPEYRON (1799 - 1864) FRENCH ENGINEER 329 JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE (1818 - 1889) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST 330 THE MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT 331 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK AND HEAT 331 RUDOLF JULIUS CLAUSIUS (1822 - 1888)- GERMAN PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 333 HERMANN LUDWIG VON HELMHOLTZ (1821 - 1894) GERMAN PHYSICIST 337 LORD WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN (1824 - 1907) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 340 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 344 LUDWIG EDWARD BOLTZMANN (1844 - 1906) AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST 349 JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839 - 1903) AMERICAN PHYSICIST 351 HERMANN WALTHER NERNST (1864 - 1941) GERMAN PHYSICAL CHEMIST 355 THE STORY OF THE GAS LAWS AND THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 358 THE STORY OF THE CHEMISTRY OF GASES 359 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH CHEMIST AND PHYSICIST 359 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) - FRENCH CHEMIST 360 JOSEPH BLACK (1728 - 1799) - SCOTTISH CHEMIST 361 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731 - 1810) - ENGLISH CHEMIST AND PHYSICIST 361 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) - ENGLISH CHEMIST 361 KARL W. SCHEELE (1742 - 1786) - SWEDISH CHEMIST 361 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749 - 1819) - SCOTTISH CHEMIST 361 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) - ENGLISH CHEMIST 362 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) - SWEDISH CHEMIST 363 DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) - RUSSIAN CHEMIST 364 THE STORY OF THE PHYSICS OF GASES 365 THE CLASSIC GREEK ERA OF ANTIQUITY 366 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER 366 EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER 366 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND ZOOLOGIST 367 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND BOTANIST 367 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) - GREEK PHILOSOPHER AND MATHEMATICIAN 368 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) - GREEK MATHEMATICIAN 368 ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) GREEK MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 368 THE RENAISSANCE ERA AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 369 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN, PHYSICIST AND ASTRONOMER 370 EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI (1608 - 1647) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST 372 BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) - FRENCH PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 372 THE GAS LAWS 373 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 373 GUILLAUME AMONTONS (1663 - 1705) - FRENCH PHYSICIST 373 DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700 - 1782) - SWISS MATHEMATICIAN 374 THE THERMOMETER AND THE TEMPERATURE SCALE 375 GABRIEL DANIEL FAHRENHEIT (1686 - 1736) GERMAN-DUTCH PHYSICIST 376 ANDERS CELSIUS (1701 - 1744) - SWEDISH ASTRONOMER 376 LORD WILLIAM THOMSON KELVIN (1824 - 1907) SCOTTISH PHYSICIST AND MATHEMATICIAN 376 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) - ENGLISH CHEMIST 377 JACQUES ALEXANDRE CHARLES (1746 - 1823) FRENCH PHYSICIST 378 JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778 - 1850) - FRENCH CHEMIST 380 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) - ITALIAN PHYSICIST 380 AVOGADRO’S LAW OF 1811 381 JOHANNES VAN DER WAALS (1837 - 1923) - DUTCH PHYSICIST 382 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805- 1869) SCOTTISH PHYSICAL CHEMIST 383 THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 384 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 385 LUDWIG EDWARD BOLTZMANN (1844 - 1906) AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST 385 A CLOSING NOTE OF ADMIRATION AND RESPECT TO THE GENIUS AND CREATIVITY OF SCIENTISTS 386 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM 387 THE PHENOMENA OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 389 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706 - 1790) AMERICAN STATESMAN AND SCIENTIST 390 WILLIAM GILBERT (1544 - 1603) ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND PHYSICIAN 392 ROBERT BOYLE (1627 - 1691) - IRISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 392 OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602 - 1686) - GERMAN PHYSICIST 393 THE CREATION OF THE LEYDEN JAR 394 PIETER VAN MUSSCHENBROEK (1692 - 1761) DUTCH PHYSICIST 395 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) - ENGLISH CHEMIST 396 LUIGI GALVANI (1737 - 1798) - ITALIAN ANATOMIST 398 THE GREAT INVENTION AND DISCOVERY OF THE CENTURY 400 ALESSANDRO GIUSEPPE VOLTA (1745 - 1827) ITALIAN PHYSICIST 401 HANS CHRISTIAN OERSTED (1777 - 1851) DANISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 403 ANDRE MARIE AMPERE (1775 - 1836) - FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 405 DOMINIQUE FRANCOIS ARAGO (1786 - 1853) FRENCH PHYSICIST 406 GEORG SIMON OHM (1789 - 1854) - GERMAN PHYSICIST 407 SIR HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) - ENGLISH CHEMIST 409 THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM 411 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST AND CHEMIST 411 THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR (1831) 417 THE CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND THE ELECTRIC TRANSFORMER (1831) 417 FARADAY’S LINES OF FORCE (1831 - 1844) 419 THE CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR (1831) 419 JOSEPH HENRY (1797 - 1878) - AMERICAN PHYSICIST 421 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) SCOTTISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST 425 HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ (1853 - 1928) DUTCH PHYSICIST 428 SAMUEL FINLEY MORSE (1791 - 1872) - AMERICAN ARTIST AND INVENTOR 431 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847 - 1922) SCOTTISH-AMERICAN SCIENTIST, INVENTOR AND TEACHER 433 THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847 - 1931) - AMERICAN INVENTOR 436 NIKOLA TESLA (1856 - 1943) - CROATIAN-AMERICAN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER 438 HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ (1857 - 1894) - GERMAN PHYSICIST 439 MARCHESE GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874 - 1937) - ITALIAN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER 441 CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM 443 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 446 THE STORY OF ALBERT EINSTEIN AND HIS THEORY OF SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY 460 ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955) - GERMAN-AMERICAN THEORETICAL PHYSICIST 460 EINSTEIN’S MIRACLE YEAR - 1905 462 EINSTEIN’S FIRST PAPER ON “THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT”, 1905 462 EINSTEIN’S SECOND PAPER ON “THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, 1905 463 EINSTEIN’S THIRD PAPER ON “CALCULATING THE TRUE SIZE OF ATOMS”, 1905 463 EINSTEIN’S FOURTH PAPER ON “THE THEORY OF LIGHT AND RELATIVE MOTION”, 1905 464 EINSTEIN’S FIFTH PAPER ON “THE THEORY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY”, 1905 466 EINSTEIN’S SIXTH PAPER ON “THE THEORY OF GENERAL RELATIVITY”, 1916 468 THE STORY OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT 472 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) - ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN, PHYSICIST AND ASTRONOMER 472 OLAUS ROEMER (1644 - 1710) - DANISH ASTRONOMER 473 JAMES BRADLEY (1693 - 1762) - ENGLISH ASTRONOMER 474 ARMAND HIPPOLYTE FIZEAU (1819 - 1896) FRENCH PHYSICIST 476 JEAN BERNARD FOUCAULT (1819 - 1868) - FRENCH PHYSICIST 477 ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON (1852 - 1931) GERMAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST 478 THE STORY OF THE ATOM THE QUANTUM THEORY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS 481 MAX KARL PLANCK (1858 - 1947) - GERMAN PHYSICIST 484 NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885 - 1962) - DANISH PHYSICIST 487 MAX BORN (1882 - 1970) - GERMAN-BRITISH PHYSICIST 490 WERNER KARL HEISENBERG (1901 - 1976) GERMAN PHYSICIST 492 ERWIN SCHRODINGER (1887 - 1961) - AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST 495 PAUL DIRAC (1902 - 1984) - ENGLISH PHYSICIST 496 LOUIS VICTOR DE BROGLIE (1892 - 1987) FRENCH PHYSICIST 498 WOLFGANG PAULI (1900 - 1958) AUSTRIAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIST 500 CLOSING COMMENTS ON THE STORY OF THE QUANTUM THEORY 501 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 504 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR 506 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 515

 

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