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The realities of reality : Part II, Making Sense of Why Modern Science Advances (Volume 1)

By Dufour, Fritz

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Book Id: WPLBN0100003185
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 2.96 MB.
Reproduction Date: 9/19/2018

Title: The realities of reality : Part II, Making Sense of Why Modern Science Advances (Volume 1)  
Author: Dufour, Fritz
Volume: Volume 1
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Philosophy, Philosophy of Science
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2018
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Fritz Dufour

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Mba, Des, F. D. (2018). The realities of reality : Part II, Making Sense of Why Modern Science Advances (Volume 1). Retrieved from http://self.gutenberg.org/


Description
This Volume 1 of Part II considers the factors that make science progress. It lays out the differences between normal science and pseudoscience by showing the importance of the scientific method in the advancement of science. It introduces the concept of Truth in science by raising the point that even though truth is based on the scientific method, can science be true? Can it depict reality? The author focuses on modern science, which, he thinks, was born thanks to the Scientific Revolution which started with Galileo Galilei and led to the Industrial Revolution. The impacts of the latter is analyzed in light modernism, modernization, and modernity, all three linked to scientific progress. The book also talks about the Newtonian scientific leap – by analyzing particularly the then social and political fabrics of England – and Albert Einstein by showing how he changed history. According to the author, our very physical world can help us understand scientific progress. So, he explains, among other things, the structure of atoms and molecules, the role of physics in the understanding of our universe, Quantum Mechanics, and the importance of Higgs-Boson. On the other hand, the book is a stunning revelation of how important information is to scientific progress. To make his point, the author, first, talks about John Vincent Atanasoff as the Father of computer thanks to the invention of his ABC computer and then, Alan Turing as the Father of modern computer thanks to his Turing Test and his views on Artificial Intelligence. Both men played a momentous role in the Digital Revolution and in the Information Age, according to the book. Finally, the author talks about nanotechnology, which explores the world of small, meaning at the atomic and the molecular levels and is an inescapable tool in the molecular biology revolution which, itself, is an important factor in scientific progress and in transhumanism or human enhancement defined as the ideology according to which man can surpass his present state by improving his genetic material.

Summary
This Volume 1 of Part II considers the factors that make science progress. It lays out the differences between normal science and pseudoscience by showing the importance of the scientific method in the advancement of science. It introduces the concept of Truth in science by raising the point that even though truth is based on the scientific method, can science be true? Can it depict reality? The author focuses on modern science, which, he thinks, was born thanks to the Scientific Revolution which started with Galileo Galilei and led to the Industrial Revolution. The impacts of the latter is analyzed in light modernism, modernization, and modernity, all three linked to scientific progress. The book also talks about the Newtonian scientific leap – by analyzing particularly the then social and political fabrics of England – and Albert Einstein by showing how he changed history. According to the author, our very physical world can help us understand scientific progress. So, he explains, among other things, the structure of atoms and molecules, the role of physics in the understanding of our universe, Quantum Mechanics, and the importance of Higgs-Boson. On the other hand, the book is a stunning revelation of how important information is to scientific progress. To make his point, the author, first, talks about John Vincent Atanasoff as the Father of computer thanks to the invention of his ABC computer and then, Alan Turing as the Father of modern computer thanks to his Turing Test and his views on Artificial Intelligence. Both men played a momentous role in the Digital Revolution and in the Information Age, according to the book. Finally, the author talks about nanotechnology, which explores the world of small, meaning at the atomic and the molecular levels and is an inescapable tool in the molecular biology revolution which, itself, is an important factor in scientific progress and in transhumanism or human enhancement defined as the ideology according to which man can surpass his present state by improving his genetic material.

Excerpt
Science is often distinguished from other domains of human culture by its progressive nature: in contrast to art, religion, philosophy, morality, and politics, there exist clear standards or normative criteria for identifying improvements and advances in science. However, the traditional cumulative view of scientific knowledge was effectively challenged by many philosophers of science in the 1960s and the 1970s, and thereby the notion of progress was also questioned in the field of science. Debates on the normative concept of progress are at the same time concerned with axiological questions about the aims and goals of science. The task of philosophical analysis is to consider alternative answers to the question: What is meant by progress in science? This conceptual question can then be complemented by the methodological question: How can we recognize progressive developments in science? Relative to a definition of progress and an account of its best indicators, one may then study the factual question: To what extent, and in which respects, is science progressive? What is driving the dynamism of science? Why are science and man inseparable? Do we control science or does science control us? No matter, how we put it, it boils down to one thing: science is here to stay – at least for as long as we exist – and it will never be stationary. Humans are doomed to evolve, and so is science. Today, we live in a world transformed by modern science. We look to science to cure diseases, fill the future with mind-boggling inventions and keep us from destroying the planet. What are these hopes based on? Does science have some remarkable power? Is there a scientific method that we count on to produce miracles? Does science induce knowledge or is it the other way around?

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 CHAPTER I: What Is Science?...........................................................................................................................................................................................13 1. Types of Science………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17 A. Normal Science and Scientific Progress……………………………………………………………...……….........................17 B. Pseudoscience and Scientific Progress………………………………………………………………………………………….20 2. The Role of Scientific Method in Scientific Progress…………………………………………………………………..........................24 CHAPTER II: Science and the Quest for Truth……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28 Values in Science…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37 CHAPTER III: The Scientific Revolution………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..40 CHAPTER IV: The Industrial Revolution……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52 1. Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on the World..…………………………………………………………………………………….56 2. The Industrial Revolution and Modernity…………………………………………………………………………………………………...61 A. Modernism and Scientific Progress……………………………………………………………………………………………...62 B. Modernization and Scientific Progress…………………………………………………………………………………………65 C. Modernity and Scientific Progress………………………………………………………………………………………………..68 CHAPTER V: The Newtonian Scientific Leap…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72 CHAPTER VI: Albert Einstein: How He Changed History……………………………………………………………………………………………….83 CHAPTER VII: Making Sense of the Physical World to Understand Scientific Progress………….……………………............................91 1. The Structure of Atoms and Molecules………………………………………………………………………………………………………..91 2. Atomic Orbitals………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..........................92 3. Molecular Orbitals……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..99 4. The New Atomic Model…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….101 5. Role of Physics in the Understanding of Our Universe………………………………………………………………………………..102 6. The Importance of Higgs-Boson………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..106 CHAPTER VIII: The Reality of Quantum Mechanics and Its Role in the Advancement of Science………………….........................110 1. Fundamental Explanations of Quantum Mechanics and Its Reality………………………………………………………………112 2. How Did Quantum Mechanics Come About?....................................................................................................................................117 3. So, to What Extent Can We Say That Physics Is a Humble Science?.........................................................................................127 4. Evidence for Dark Matter…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………129 CHAPTER IX: The Quest for Information……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………136 1. What Is Information?................................................................................................................................................................................137 2. John Vincent Atanasoff, Father of the Computer………………………………………………………………………........................145 The ABC Computer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………147 3. Alan Turing, Father of Modern Computer…………………………………………………………………………………………………152 CHAPTER X: The Digital Revolution…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………174 1. Information Technology…………………………………………………………………………………………………………........................176 A. Data Storage……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..178 B. Data Retrieval…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...180 C. Data Transmission…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….182 D. Data Manipulation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….185 2. Machine Learning……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………187 3. Nanotechnology………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………194 CHAPTER XI: The Molecular Biology Revolution………………………………………………………………………………………………………204 1. The Human Genome Project…………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………207 2. Molecular Medicine………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….209 3. DNA Testing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….211 CHAPTER XII: Transhumanism or Human Enhancement Thanks to Science………………………………………………………………219 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………231 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………237 By the Same Author…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………249

 

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