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Active–stative language

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Title: Active–stative language  
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Subject: Amuzgo language, Georgian grammar, Voice (grammar), Grammar, Analytic language
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Active–stative language

This article may contain information that is already published in another article on the same subject or may be repeating information already explained.

An active–stative language (active language for short), also commonly called a split intransitive language, is a language in which the sole argument ("subject") of an intransitive clause (often symbolized as S) is sometimes marked in the same way as an agent of a transitive verb (that is, like a subject such as "I" or "she" in English), and sometimes in the same way as a direct object (such as "me" or "her" in English). The case or agreement of this intransitive argument (S) depends on semantic or lexical criteria particular to each language. These criteria tend to be based on the degree of volition or control over the verbal action exercised by the participant. For example, if one tripped and fell, an active–stative language might require them to say the equivalent of "fell me"; saying "I fell" would mean that they had done it on purpose, such as taking a fall in boxing. Another possibility is empathy; for example, if someone's dog were run over by a car, they might say the equivalent of "died her"; to say "she died" would imply that they were not affected emotionally.

If the core arguments of a transitive clause are termed A (agent of a transitive verb) and O (object, or patient of a transitive verb), then active–stative languages can be described as languages which align intransitive S as S = O ("me fell") or S = A ("I fell") depending on the criteria described above.

Active–stative languages contrast with accusative languages such as English that generally align S as S = A, and to ergative languages that generally align S as S = O.


  • Types 1
  • Argument marking 2
  • Terminology 3
  • Examples 4
    • South American languages 4.1
    • Central America/Mesoamerican languages 4.2
    • North American languages 4.3
    • South and Southeast Asia 4.4
    • Caucasus 4.5
    • Others 4.6
    • Reconstructed languages 4.7


For most languages of this type, the case of the intransitive argument is lexically fixed for each verb, regardless of the actual degree of volition of the subject, but often corresponding to the most typical situation. For example, the argument of swim may always treated like the transitive subject (agent-like), and the argument of sleep like the transitive direct object (patient-like). In Dakota, arguments of active verbs such as to run are marked like transitive agents, as in accusative languages, while arguments of inactive verbs such as to stand are marked like transitive objects, as in ergative languages. In a language like this, if the subject of a verb like run or swallow is defined as agentive, it will be always marked so, even if the action of swallowing is involuntary. This subtype is sometimes known as split-S.

In other languages, the marking of the intransitive argument is decided by the speaker based on semantic considerations. That is, for any given intransitive verb the speaker may choose whether to mark the argument as agentive or patientive. In some of these languages, agentive marking encodes a degree of volition or control over the action, with the patientive used as the default case; in others, patientive marking encodes a lack of volition or control, suffering from or being otherwise affected by the action, or sympathy on the part of the speaker, with the agentive used as the default case. These subtypes are sometimes known as fluid-S.

Argument marking

If the language has morphological case, then the arguments of a transitive verb are marked using the agentive case for the subject and the patientive case for the object, while the argument of an intransitive verb may be marked as either.

Languages lacking case inflections may indicate case with different word orders, using adpositions, etc. For example, the patientive argument might precede the verb, while the agentive argument might follow.

Cross-linguistically, the agentive argument tends to be marked, and the patientive argument tends to be unmarked. That is, if one case is indicated by zero-inflection, it is often the patientive.


Active languages are a relatively new field of study; in other times active morphosyntactic alignment was not recognized as such, and was mostly treated as an interesting deviation from the standard alternatives (nominative–accusative and ergative–absolutive). Besides, active languages are few, and they often show complications and special cases ("pure" active alignment is an ideal). Therefore, the terminology used to describe them is rather flexible. Active languages are also termed active–stative or even nominative–absolutive. The terms agentive case and patientive case used above are descriptive but not standard; sometimes the terms active and inactive are used.

The names of the subtypes, split-S and fluid-S, come from the designation of the single argument of intransitive verbs as S. They were first used by R. M. W. Dixon in 1979.


(†) = extinct language

South American languages

  • In Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru: Tupì-Guaranì languages - Tupinambà (fluid-S, †), Tupi (†), northern Argentina, eastern Bolivia and southwestern Brazil by 7 million people), Siriono (eastern Bolivia), Camaiura or Kamayura (Split-S, Brazil);
  • Guaraní, a language spoken mainly in Paraguay, has been analyzed as a close-to-ideal active language of the fluid-S type. In Mesoamerica the Oto-Manguean languages Chocho and Amuzgo are active languages of the split-S type, with some verbs showing fluid-S alignment.
  • In Brazil(Upper Rio Negro): Arawak language Baniwa do Içana (fluid-S)
  • In South America and the Caribbean: many Arawakan languages (also Arahuacan, Arawakanas, Arahuacano, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúrean) are active languages of Split-S type, such as Waurá (Split-S, spoken in Brazil)

Central America/Mesoamerican languages

  • In Mexico: Popolocan branch of the Oto-Manguean languages - Chocho (also said Chocholtec, Chocholteco Chochotec, Chochon, or Ngigua, Split-S), Amuzgo, Chol (Mayan, Split-S)
  • In Panama & Colombia: Chibchan language Ikan (split-S)

North American languages

  • In USA: South & South-East - Gulf languages: Muskogee or Creek, Hichiti, Coasati, Choctaw (fluid-S on verbs and accusative marking on nouns), among them a subgroup of Muskogean languages such as Chickasaw (In South Central Oklahoma), Isolate: Euchee (Yuchi)(in northeastern Oklahoma, historically in Tennessee)
  • Central region of the US - Siouan languages, Omaha, Biloxi (†), Ofo (†), Osage, Winnebago, Crow (fluid-S), Ioway (split-S), Hidatsa, Dakota (split-S), Ponca, Tutelo, Assiniboine, Mandan (split-S); among a Sioux language Lakhota (split-S),
  • In Great Plains (east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada): Caddoan languages - Caddo, Wichita (ergative, accusative and S-split mixed type), Kitsai (also known as Kichai) (†), Arikara (Split-S; also known as Ree), Pawnee;
  • In Eastern North America: Iroquoian languages - Mohawk (Ontario, Quebec and northern New York), Seneca (Split-S; Western New York and the Six Nations Reserve, Ontario), Huron (called also as Wyandot, spoken in northeastern Oklahoma, Quebec), Oneida (spoken in Six Nations Reserve, Ontario; central New York and around Green Bay, Wisconsin), Onondaga (Split-S type, spoken in Six Nations Reserve, Ontario, and western New York), Susquehannock (†), Cayuga (spoken on Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, Ontario, by around 100 people), Tuscarora (southern Ontario, Tuscarora Reservation in northwestern New York, and eastern North Carolina), Nottoway (Virginia), Cherokee (Oklahoma, North Carolina);
  • In Louisiana: Tunica (†) (or Tonica, or less common form Yuron) a language isolate
  • In California: Pamoan languages - Eastern Pomo (fluid-S, Northern California), Central Pomo and Northern Pomo, Southeastern Pomo, Kashaya;
  • Western North America (In Canada, Alaska, Southern Rocky Mountains, Pacific shore of the US) – Na-dene languages - Haida, Tlingit, Eyak († since 2008), Athapaskan, Slave
  • Chiracahua Apache and many other languages also show active alignment.

South and Southeast Asia


  • Mingrelian is more controversial.
  • Northeast Caucasian languages: Tsova-Tush. According to Holisky (1987), there are 31 intransitive verbs where the argument is always marked as patientive and which refer to uncontrollable states ("be hungry", "tremble", etc.), and 78 intransitive verbs with an agentive argument ("walk", "talk", "think"). These form a split-S subset of the verbs. The rest of the verbs form a fluid-S system; for instance, a single verb root can be interpreted as "slip" when used with a patientive argument, and as "slide" with an agentive argument.
  • Tabasaran.


Reconstructed languages

The reconstructed

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