World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

American Smelting and Refining Company

Article Id: WHEBN0004919502
Reproduction Date:

Title: American Smelting and Refining Company  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Swansea, Arizona, Newfoundland Railway, Kennecott Utah Copper, Baldwin S-12, Sawtooth National Forest, Harry Frank Guggenheim, Baldwin VO-660, Harold Loeb, Tormey, California, Boncarbo, Colorado
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

American Smelting and Refining Company

Asarco LLC is a mining, smelting, and refining company based in Tucson, Arizona, that mines and processes primarily copper. The company is a subsidiary of Grupo México.

Its three largest open pit mines are the Mission, Silver Bell and the Ray mines in Arizona. Its mines produce 350 to 400 million pounds of copper a year. Asarco conducts solvent extraction/electrowinning at the Ray and Silver Bell mines in Pima County, Arizona and Pinal County, Arizona and a smelter in Hayden, Arizona. Before its smelting plant in El Paso, Texas was suspended in 1999 it was producing 1 billion pounds of anodes each year. Refining at the mines as well as at a copper refinery in Amarillo, Texas produce 375 million pounds of refined copper each year.

Asarco's hourly workers are primarily represented by the United Steelworkers.

Asarco has 20 superfund sites across the United States, and it is subject to considerable litigation over pollution.


ASARCO was founded in 1899 as the American Smelting and Refining Company by Henry H. Rogers, William Rockefeller, Adolph Lewisohn, Anton Eilers and Leonard Lewisohn. From 1901-1958, American Smelting and Refining was a member of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

In 1901 Meyer Guggenheim and his sons took over the company.

On January 11, 1916, sixteen Asarco employees were killed and mutilated by Pancho Villa's men near the town of Santa Isabel, Chihuahua. It was one of the incidents that sparked the Mexican Expedition, a United States Army attempt to capture or kill Villa.

In 1975 it officially changed its name to Asarco Incorporated. In 1999 it was acquired by Grupo México, which itself began as Asarco's 49%-owned Mexican subsidiary in 1965, and on August 9, 2005, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in Corpus Christi,[1] Texas under then-president Daniel Tellechea.

Pollution and environmental issues

Asarco has been found responsible for environmental pollution at 20 Superfund sites across the U.S. by the Environmental Protection Agency. Those sites are:

  1. Interstate Lead Company, or ILCO, labeled EPA Site ALD041906173, and located in Leeds, Jefferson County, Alabama[2]
  2. Argo Smelter, Omaha & Grant Smelter, labeled EPA Site COD002259588, and located at Vasquez Boulevard and I-70 in Denver, Colorado[3]
  3. Smeltertown, a copper smelter used to illegally dispose of hazardous waste, in El Paso, El Paso County, Texas. The plant has since been dismantled.[4]
  4. Leadville, Colorado;
  5. Summitville Consolidated Mining Corp., Inc. (SCMCI), now bankrupt, EPA Site COD983778432, in Del Norte, Rio Grande County, Colorado;
  6. Globeville, near South Platte River, Denver and Adams County, Colorado;
  7. Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho;
  8. Kin-Buc Landfill in New Jersey;
  9. Tar Creek (Ottawa County) lead and zinc operations and surrounding residences in Oklahoma;
  10. Commencement Bay, Near Shore/Tide Flats smelter, groundwater, and residences in Tacoma and Ruston, Washington.

Litigation history

After the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sued Asarco for damages to natural resources in 1983, the EPA placed the Asarco Globe Plant on its National Priorities List, with Asarco to pay for the site's cleanup.[5]

Asarco consolidated several plants at the corner of 5th & Douglas Streets in Downtown Omaha on April 4, 1889. Within 25 years it was the largest lead refinery in the world. In 1972 the plant was found to be releasing high amounts of lead into the air and ground surrounding the plant. In 1995 Asarco submitted a demolition and site cleanup plan to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality for their impact on the local residential area. Fined $3.6 million in 1996 for discharging lead and other pollutants into the Missouri River, Omaha's Asarco plant was closed in July, 1997.[6] After extensive site cleanup, the land was turned over to the City of Omaha as a 23-acre (93,000 m2) park. All of East Omaha, comprising more than 8,000 acres (32 km²), was declared a Superfund site, and as of 2003, 290 acres (1.2 km²) had been cleaned.[7]

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency released the results of soil and air tests in Hayden, Arizona taken adjacent to the ASARCO Hayden Smelter. The results showed abnormally high amounts of pollutants that violate prescribed health standards. Arsenic, lead and copper were among the most egregious pollutants found in Hayden. As a consequence of the contamination, the EPA proposed to add Hayden, Arizona to the list of Federal "Superfund" sites. This action would provide funding to clean up the contamination. Asarco is presently fighting this action, supported by Democratic Gov. Janet Napolitano, who said: "I am asking that the EPA delay final decision on listing until March 31, 2008. This would provide ample time for the EPA, in close coordination with ADEQ,[8] to enter an agreement with Asarco to conduct remedial actions..."


At least one site that Asarco has worked and contaminated was featured in documentary form. Tar Creek was made by Matt Myers in 2009 about the Tar Creek Superfund site. At one time, Tar Creek was considered to be the worst environmental problem on the list of more than 1200 sites.

See also


External links

  • Official website
  • profile in International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 4. St. James Press, 1991 (via
  • Grupo México history
  • A Toxic Century: Mining Giant Asarco Must Clean Up Mess : NPR 2010
  • Link to CNN transcript of the ASARCO El Paso Video 2008
  • Marilyn Berlin Snell, "Going for Broke" Sierra Club Magazine, May/June 2006.
  • Michael E. Ketterer, The ASARCO El Paso Smelter: A Source of Local Contamination of Soils in El Paso (Texas), Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico), and Anapra (New Mexico), 2006.
  • Jake Bernstein, Clean up or Cover Up? "The Texas Observer", 2004.
  • Corpus Christi's Refinery row
  • Describes criminal conviction of an ASARCO supplier
  • ASARCO Taylor Springs Illinois, Historical Society of Montgomery County Illinois
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.