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Andrei Shkuro

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Subject: Cossacks, Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II, Kuban Cossacks, Warlords, White Russian (movement) generals
Collection: 1887 Births, 1947 Deaths, Executed People from Krasnodar Krai, Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, People Extradited to the Soviet Union, People from Krasnodar, People from Kuban Oblast, Recipients of the Order of Saint Stanislaus (Russian), Recipients of the Order of St. Anna, Russian Anti-Communists, Russian Collaborators with Nazi Germany, Russian Cossacks, Russian Counter-Revolutionaries, Russian Generals, Russian People Executed by Hanging, Russian People Executed by the Soviet Union, Russian People of World War I, Russian People of World War II, Ukrainian Generals, Warlords, White Russian (Movement) Generals, White Russians (Movement)
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Andrei Shkuro

Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro
Young General Shkuro
Born (1887-01-19)January 19, 1887
Pashkovskaya (now part of Krasnodar), Kuban Oblast, Russian Empire
Died January 17, 1947(1947-01-17) (aged 59)
Moscow
Allegiance  Russian Empire
Kuban People's Republic
 Nazi Germany
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
White Movement
1st Cossack Division
Years of service 1907-1920
1943-45
Rank Lieutenant General
Battles/wars World War I
Russian Civil War
World War II
Awards Order of Saint Stanislaus
Order of Saint Anna
Order of the Bath (Great Britain)

Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Russian: Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро; Ukrainian: Андрій Григорович Шкуро) (19 January 1887 (O.S.: 7 January) – 17 January 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army.

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Early life 1.1
    • Russian Civil War 1.2
    • In exile 1.3
    • Second World War 1.4
  • See also 2
  • References 3

Biography

Early life

He was born in the stanitsa of Pashkovskaya (Пашковская, now part of Krasnodar) in Kuban Oblast into a Cossack family. Shkuro graduated from Nikolayev Cavalry School in 1907 and served in the Kuban Cossack Host. In World War I Shkuro became the commander of a special guerrilla unit which executed several daring raids behind Austrian-Hungarian and German lines. During World War I, Shkuro was promoted to the rank of colonel.

Russian Civil War

In the spring of 1918, after the establishment of the Batalpashinsk in the Caucasus. In May and June 1918 he raided Stavropol, Yessentuki and Kislovodsk.[1] After officially joining Denikin's White Army, he became the commander of the Kuban Cossacks brigade which soon increased in size and became a division. In May 1919 Shkuro, as a young lieutenant-general, had a whole cavalry corps of Cossacks under his command.

Shkuro, though charismatic and audacious, showed bravery which often bordered on the reckless; he received several wounds, and also acquired a reputation for his cunning. Many in the White Army's high command, however, considered him undisciplined and somewhat of a "loose cannon".

According to Soviet historians his forces (including his chief of staff Yakov Slashchov) were particularly cruel and prone to looting. In contrast, in his memoirs (which Shkuro dictated in 1921) he describes many instances in which he spared the lives of enemies, including even Bolshevik commissars (whom the Whites usually summarily executed). Shkuro claimed that he saved from execution a Red Army battalion of Jewish volunteers taken prisoner by the Whites, and that he spoke out against and prevented pogroms against the Jewish population.[2] When Denikin’s volunteer army took Kiev in August 1919,[3] however, it inflicted a large-scale pogrom on the Jews. Over 20,000 people died in two days of violence. After these events, Supresskin, the representative of the Kharkov Jewish community, spoke to Shkuro, who stated to him bluntly that "Jews will not receive any mercy because they are all Bolsheviks".[4]

Although the White Army general

  1. ^ Shkuro, Andrei Grigor’evich in The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979)
  2. ^ Beloye Delo, Drozdovtsi i Partizani(White Cause), Moskva Golos 1996, A.G. Shkuro, Zapiski Belogo Partizana (Notes by a White Partisan) p. 224-226.
  3. ^  
  4. ^ (Russian) Dr Sergeichuk, V. Symon Petliura kak protyvnyk Yevreyskykh Pogromov (Symon Petlura in opposition to Jewish Pogroms, Zerkalo Nedeli, № 21 (86) 25 — 31 May 1996

References

See also

In 1941, Shkuro agreed to be one of the organizers of anti-Soviet Cossack units consisting of White émigrés and Soviet (mostly Cossack) prisoners of war in alliance with Nazi Germany. He, along with many other exiles, hoped that this would lead to the eventual liberation of all Russia from communism. In 1944, Shkuro was placed in command of the "Cossack Reserve", which were primarily deployed in Yugoslavia against Josip Broz Tito's partisans. In 1945, Shkuro was detained by the British forces in Austria and handed over to the Soviet authorities in Operation Keelhaul. The Supreme Court of the USSR sentenced Andrei Shkuro to death. On 17 January 1947, he was executed, together with Pyotr Krasnov, by hanging.

Second World War

After the defeat of the Whites, Shkuro lived as an exile, primarily in France and Serbia. For the first few years he and a few other Cossack partners, displaying their great horsemanship, performed in circuses as trick riders across Europe. In addition, he continued to conduct anti-Soviet activities. Russian émigré memoirs depict Shkuro as a very lively man who enjoyed social gatherings with plenty of dancing, singing, drinking, and vivid storytelling about times past.

In exile

Shkuro in Cossack uniform
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