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Federalist No. 44

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Title: Federalist No. 44  
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Subject: The Federalist Papers, Necessary and Proper Clause, 1788 works, Supremacy Clause, Federalist No. 63
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Federalist No. 44

James Madison, author of Federalist No. 44

Federalist No. 44 is an essay by James Madison, the forty-fourth of The Federalist Papers. It was published on January 25, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all The Federalist Papers were published. This essay addresses the Constitution's limitation of the power of individual states, something strongly decried by the Anti-Federalists, who sought a greater degree of sovereignty for the states. It is titled, "Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States."


In this essay, Madison justifies many parts of the Constitution, specifically those sections which limit the powers of the states, give Congress full authority to execute its powers and establish the Constitution as the supreme law of the land.

His discussion begins with article 1, section 10 (which limits the powers of individual states), wherein he justifies the outlawing of state sponsored privateering as consistent with not allowing states to conduct their own foreign policy, which could lead to great mischief.

He then expounds upon why states should not be allowed to mint their own currencies or issue paper money, saying that multiple currencies would cause confusion and discrepancies, hurt citizens and fuel animosity between the states. He condemns the state issuance of paper money by citing the

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