World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hammer toe

Article Id: WHEBN0000975353
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hammer toe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: High-heeled footwear, Pigeon toe, Cubitus valgus, Cubitus varus, Club foot
Collection: Arthropathies, Congenital Disorders of Musculoskeletal System
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hammer toe

Hammer toe
A mallet toe is evident on the 3rd digit
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 M20.4, Q66.8
ICD-9-CM 735.4, 755.66
MedlinePlus 001235
MeSH D037801

A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint.[1][2]

Claw toe is another similar condition, with dorsiflexion of the proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal joint, combined with flexion of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Claw toe can affect the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes.

Contents

  • Causes 1
  • Treatment 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Causes

Hammer toe most frequently results from wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position, such as excessively high heels or shoes that are too short or narrow for the foot. Having the toes bent for long periods of time can cause the muscles in them to shorten, resulting in the hammer toe deformity. This is often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems (e.g., a bunion can force the big toe to turn inward and push the other toes). It can also be caused by muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, complex regional pain syndrome or diabetes.[3] Hammer toe can also be found in Friedreich's ataxia (GAA trinucleotide repeat).

Corrective surgery for hammer toe

Treatment

In many cases, conservative treatment consisting of physical therapy and new shoes with soft, spacious toe boxes is enough to resolve the condition, while in more severe or longstanding cases podiatric surgery may be necessary to correct the deformity. The patient's doctor may also prescribe some toe exercises that can be done at home to stretch and strengthen the muscles. For example, the individual can gently stretch the toes manually, or use the toes to pick things up off the floor. While watching television or reading, one can put a towel flat under the feet and use the toes to crumple it. The doctor can also prescribe a brace that pushes down on the toes to force them to stretch out their muscles.

References

  1. ^ American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  2. ^ Mayo Clinic, "Hammertoe and mallet toe"
  3. ^ "Hammer toe and mallet toe – causes".  

External links

  • Hammer Toe - American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
  • Hammer Toes - American Podiatric Medical Association
  • Aetna Clinical Policy Bulletin: Hammertoe Repair Guidelines for surgical repair
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.