World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hydrazone

Article Id: WHEBN0000324402
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hydrazone  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Imine, Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis, Wolff–Kishner reduction, Functional group, Functional groups
Collection: Functional Groups, Hydrazones
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hydrazone

Structure of the hydrazone functional group

Hydrazones are a class of

  1. ^  
  2. ^ Stork, G.; Benaim, J. (1977). -2-octalone"1(9) Metalloenamines: 1-butyl-10-methyl-Δvia"Monoalkylation of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones .  
  3. ^ Day, A. C.; Whiting, M. C. (1970). "Acetone hydrazone".  
  4. ^ Wu, Anna M.; Senter, Peter D. (7 September 2005). "Arming antibodies: prospects and challenges for immunoconjugates". Nature Biotechnology 23 (9): 1137–46.  
  5. ^ Kalia, J.; Raines, R. T. (2008). "Hydrolytic stability of hydrazones and oximes". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47 (39): 7523–6.  
  6. ^ Oliveira P.F.M., Baron M., Chamayou A., André-Barrès C., Guidetti B., Baltas M., Solvent-free mechanochemical route for green synthesis of pharmaceutically attractive phenol-hydrazones, RSC Adv. (2014), 4, 56736-56742, doi: 10.1039/c4ra10489g
  7. ^ Lazny, R.; Nodzewska, A. (2010). "N,N-dialkylhydrazones in organic synthesis. From simple N,N-dimethylhydrazones to supported chiral auxiliaries". Chemical reviews 110 (3): 1386–1434.  
  8. ^ Corey, E.; Enders, D. (1976). "Applications of N,N-dimethylhydrazones to synthesis. Use in efficient, positionally and stereochemically selective C_C bond formation; oxidative hydrolysis to carbonyl compounds". Tetrahedron Letters 17 (1): 3–3.  
  9. ^ Corey, E. J.; Enders, D. (1978). "Herstellung und synthetische Verwendung von metallierten Dimethylhydrazonen Regio- und stereoselektive Alkylierung von Carbonylverbindungen". Chemische Berichte 111 (4): 1337.  
  10. ^ Enders, D.; Eichenauer, H. (1977). "Enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes via metalated chiral hydrazones". Tetrahedron Letters 18 (23): 191–194.  
  11. ^ Enders, Dieter; Fey, Peter; Kipphardt, Helmut (1987). )-(+)-1-amino-2-methoxymethylpyrrolidine (RAMP), versatile chiral auxiliaries"R)-(−)-1-Amino-2-methoxymethylpyrrolidine (SAMP) and (S"(.  
  12. ^ Enders, Dieter; Kipphardt, Helmut; Fey, Peter (1987). )-(+)-4-methyl-3-heptanone"S"Asymmetric syntheses using the SAMP-/RAMP-hydrazone method: (.  

References

Gallery

SAMP RAMP chiral auxiliaries

In N,N′-dialkylhydrazones[7] the C=N bond can be hydrolysed, oxidised and reduced, the N-N bond can be reduced to the free amine. The carbon atom if the C=N bond can react with organometallic nucleophiles. The alpha-hydrogen atom is more acidic by 10 orders of magnitude compared to the ketone and therefore more nucleophilic. Deprotonation with for instance LDA gives an azaenolate which can be alkylated by alkyl halides, a reaction pioneered by E.J. Corey and Dieter Enders in 1978.[8][9] In asymmetric synthesis SAMP and RAMP are two chiral hydrazines that act as chiral auxiliary with a chiral hydrazone intermediate.[10][11][12]

N,N′-dialkylhydrazones

Hydrazones are reactants in hydrazone iodination, the Shapiro reaction and the Bamford-Stevens reaction to vinyl compounds. A hydrazone is an intermediate in the Wolff–Kishner reduction. Hydrazones can also be synthesized by the Japp–Klingemann reaction via β-keto-acids or β-keto-esters and aryl diazonium salts. The mechanochemical process was used recently as a green one to synthesize pharmaceutically attractive phenol hydrazones.[6]

Reactions

In aqueous solution, aliphatic hydrazones are 102- to 103-fold more sensitive to hydrolysis than analogous oximes.[5]

Hydrazone-based coupling methods are used in medical biotechnology to couple drugs to targeted antibodies (see ADC), e.g. antibodies against a certain type of cancer cell. The hydrazone-based bond is stable at neutral pH (in the blood), but is rapidly destroyed in the acidic environment of lysosomes of the cell. The drug is thereby released in the cell, where it exerts its function.[4]

The compound carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (abbreviated as FCCP) is used to uncouple ATP synthesis and reduction of oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation in molecular biology. Phenylhydrazine reacts with glucose to form an osazone.

The formation of aromatic hydrazone derivatives is used to measure the concentration of low molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, e.g. in gas streams. For example, dinitrophenylhydrazine coated onto a silica sorbent is the basis of an adsorption cartridge. The hydrazones are then eluted and analyzed by HPLC using a UV detector.

Uses

Contents

  • Uses 1
  • Reactions 2
  • N,N′-dialkylhydrazones 3
  • Gallery 4
  • References 5
Hydrazone synthesis

[3][2].aldehydes or ketones on hydrazine. They are formed usually by the action of functional group NNH
2
by the replacement of the oxygen with the aldehydes and ketones They are related to [1].NNH
2
=C
2
R
1
R

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.