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List of Linux distributions

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Title: List of Linux distributions  
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List of Linux distributions

Timeline representing the development of various Linux distributions.

This page provides general information about notable package management system they are based around.


  • Debian-based 1
    • Knoppix-based 1.1
    • Ubuntu-based 1.2
      • Official distributions 1.2.1
      • Old official distributions 1.2.2
      • Third-party distributions 1.2.3
  • Gentoo-based 2
  • Pacman-based 3
    • Arch-based 3.1
  • RPM-based 4
    • Fedora-based 4.1
      • RHEL-based 4.1.1
    • Mandriva Linux-based 4.2
    • openSUSE-based 4.3
  • Slackware-based 5
    • Slax-based 5.1
  • Independent 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Debian family tree

Debian GNU/Linux is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package format[1] and the dpkg package manager and its frontends.[2]

Distribution Description
64 Studio Attempts to specialize in audio and video production on x86-64 workstations.[3]
aptosid Multilingual desktop-oriented Live CD based on Debian unstable. Formerly sidux.[4]
Astra Linux OS developed for Russian Army with raised security.[5]
Bharat Operating System Solutions This software is also known by the acronym BOSS Linux.[6]
BunsenLabs Linux A community continuation of Crunchbang Linux based on the Debian 'stable' distribution featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 taskbar.[7]
Canaima A Venezuelan Linux distribution.[8]
Corel Linux Commercial. Short-lived desktop Linux distribution, bought by Xandros Linux.[9]
CrunchBang Linux A small Linux Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.[10] Development has ended for CrunchBang as of February, 2015.[11]
Devuan A fork of Debian begun in 2014 with the primary goal of allowing user choice in init systems, by decoupling software packages from systemd.[12]
Dreamlinux A Brazilian Linux distribution (not active anymore).
Elive A Live CD and Distribution featuring Enlightenment as the only window manager. Aims to be intuitive and easy to use.[13]
Emdebian Grip A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.[14]
Finnix A small system administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures.[15]
gNewSense originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary blobs) and non-free software removed.
grml Live CD for system recovery.[16]
HandyLinux A Debian GNU/Linux derivative, designed for seniors equipped with old computers for which Windows has become too slow.[17]
Instant WebKiosk Live, browser only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage.[18]
Kali Linux Made to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing. It is based on Debian GNU/Linux[19]
Kanotix An installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient scripts and GUI for ease of use.[20]
Knoppix The first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian GNU/Linux.[21]
Kurumin Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users.
LEAF Project The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances.[22]
LiMux An ISO 9241 industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich, Germany.[23]
LinuxBBQ LinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid GNU/Linux.
Linux Mint Debian Edition Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is a rolling Linux distribution based on Debian Testing. It is available in both 32 and 64-bit as a live DVD with a Cinnamon or MATE desktop. The purpose of LMDE is to look identical to the main Linux Mint edition and to provide the same functionality while using Debian as a base.[24]
Maemo A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia N900 Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel–based devices.[25]
MEPIS Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be used on older computers with limited hardware.[26] There is also a Xfce distro called MX that's based on Debian Stable.[27]
MintPPC For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not Linux Mint.[28]
Musix GNU+Linux A Debian GNU/Linux based distribution, intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.[29]
NepaLinux A Debian and Morphix Linux based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.[30]
OpenZaurus Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström distribution.[31]
Pardus Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013 it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
Parsix Optimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and comes with security support.[32]
PelicanHPC Dedicated to setting up a computer cluster.[33]
Rxart Desktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.[34]
Raspbian Desktop-oriented distribution. Developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the official OS for their family of low-power single-board computers.[35]
Sacix A Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.[36]
Siduction Derived from aptosid, siduction is a distro based on debian sid with a friendly community.[37]
Skolelinux A Linux distribution from Norway. It is provided as a thin client distribution for schools.[38]
SolusOS Based on the Stable branch of Debian with updated software applications from Debian backports. Improved media support. Featured the Gnome desktop with usability patches and customized applications. Discontinued October 2013[39]
SolydXK Xfce and KDE desktop with a semi-rolling release model.[40]
SteamOS Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Sunwah Linux A Chinese Linux distribution[41]
Symphony OS Includes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.[42]
SalineOS Lean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.[43]
TAILS The Amnesic Incognito Live System' or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.[44]
Ubuntu A distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.[45]
Ulteo Virtual desktop project.[46]
Univention Corporate Server Enterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users for tests and for private use can be downloaded for free.[47]
Webconverger Debian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However based on Firefox & dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public places.[48]
Vyatta Commercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.[49]
Xanadu Light, fast and safe. rolling release Linux distribution based on Debian SID


Knoppix family tree

Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian. It is a live distribution, with automated hardware configuration and a wide choice of software, which is decompressed as it loads from the drive.[50]

Distribution Description
Damn Small Linux It is a small Linux distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.[51]
Feather Linux It boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection and the Fluxbox window manager.[52]
Hikarunix A Linux distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small Linux.[53]


Ubuntu family tree

Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktop and server.[54]

Official distributions

These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.[55]

Distribution Description
Edubuntu A complete Linux based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities.[56]
Kubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.[57]
Ubuntu GNOME An official Ubuntu variant[58] that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as its display manager.[59]
Ubuntu MATE An official derivative of Ubuntu using MATE, a desktop environment forked from the now-defunct GNOME 2 code base, with an emphasis on the desktop metaphor.[60]
Lubuntu Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXDE desktop environment.[61][62][63]
Xubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.[64]
Mythbuntu Based on Ubuntu and MythTV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a media center.[65]
Ubuntu for Android Designed for use with Android phones.[66]
Ubuntu Kylin An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu Server An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.[67]
Ubuntu Studio Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.[68]
Ubuntu Touch Designed for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TV Designed for use with TVs.[69]

Old official distributions

Distribution Description
Gobuntu Gobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a 'free software' option.[70]
Ubuntu JeOS "Just Enough OS" – was described as "an efficient variant [...] configured specifically for virtual appliances".[71] Since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition.
Ubuntu Mobile An embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical frontend. Ubuntu Touch is a successor to Ubuntu Mobile.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition[72] Netbook Edition was an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor. Starting from Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition has been merged into the desktop edition.

Third-party distributions

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd. and generally have different goals in mind.

Distribution Description
Aurora Specifically for the Eee PC range of netbooks, based on Debian. Previously named Eeebuntu and based on Ubuntu.[73]
Baltix Ubuntu-based distribution for Lithuanian and Latvian people. Supported languages are Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Russian, English, Norwegian and other around Baltic region. Main language is Lithuanian.[74]
BackBox BackBox is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.[75]
BackTrack Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing;[76] superseded by Kali Linux[76]
BlankOn Ubuntu-based Linux distribution for users in Indonesia.[77]
Buildix An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution, developed by Global IT professional services firm, ThoughtWorks. For agile developers.
Bodhi Linux An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution featuring the Moksha Desktop environment and targeting users who want a minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.[78]
Cubuntu Ubuntu-based distribution with the Cinnamon interface.[79]
dyne:bolic Live CD geared toward multimedia (audio and video) production, but comes with other non-media specific application (e.g.: word processor, desktop publisher).[80]
EasyPeasy Fork of Ubuntu designed for netbooks.[81]
Element OS Based on Xubuntu, made for Home theater PCs.[82]
elementary OS A powerful, user-friendly distribution known for its well received user interface, proprietary software, and devoted community of developers and artists.[83]
Emmabuntüs Based on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities.[84]
Galaxy OS Based on Ubuntu 14.04, but has the MacBuntu Pack installed to save the user from installing it manually. It can be updated to whatever the latest version of Ubuntu is and also contains some extra apps not installed by default on Ubuntu.
Galsoft Linux A Linux distribution derived from Lubuntu that is made to be installed from a DVD or a USB flash drive. The distribution is specially optimized to run efficiently with limited hardware resources.
GendBuntu A version adapted for use by France's National Gendarmerie.
Goobuntu An Ubuntu-based distribution used internally by Google. Not available outside of Google.
gOS Uses the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X, it also features Google Apps, Picasa, Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and comes with Wine 1.0 pre-installed.
Guadalinex Ubuntu-based distribution promoted by the local government of Andalucia, Spain, for home users and schools.[85]
Iskolinux A Linux distribution packaged and maintained by UP Manila's (UPM) Information Management System as part of University of the Philippines' thrust to migrate to Linux.
Joli OS Joli OS (formerly named Jolicloud) is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.10, but is tweaked to be more suitable for computers that have weaker specifications in terms of disk storage, memory and screen size. It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers.[86]
Impi Linux South African and focuses on the enterprise and government sector.[87]
Karoshi A formerly PCLinuxOS-based distribution designed for use in schools.[88]
Kuki Linux Lightweight Ubuntu-based Linux distribution founded by João Ferro, built to be a replacement for the Linpus Linux Lite distribution on the Acer Aspire One.[89]
LiMux A project by the city council of Munich, Germany.
Linux Mint Linux Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu's long term support, and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users. Also features a Debian-based edition.[90]
LinuxMCE Linux Media Center Edition, a Kubuntu-based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.[91]
LinuxTLE A Thai Linux distribution.[92]
LliureX A distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana[93]
LOUD LCSEE Optimized Ubuntu Distribution, an Ubuntu distribution used at West Virginia University. It contains several specialized educational packages as well as its own themes and login manager.[94]
MAX Stands for MAdrid LinuX.[95]
Molinux Ubuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.[96]
Moon OS Moon OS uses the Enlightenment window manager and also has an LXDE version, and is based on the LTS release.[97]
Nova Cuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science, Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo.
Netrunner Kubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems (also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE).[98]
OpenGEU Ubuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.[99]
Peppermint OS A light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using Chromium Web Browser. Based on Lubuntu[100]
Pinguy OS An Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.[101]
Poseidon Linux For academic and scientific use. Based on Ubuntu, but enhanced by e.g. GIS/maps, numerical modelling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, tools for creating simple and complex graphics, programming languages.
PUD Small distribution, aimed at being simple and usable.
Qimo 4 Kids Educational games for children aged three and up. Ubuntu-based with easy-to-use interface.[102]
Sabily Ubuntu based distribution for Muslims (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition).[103]
Super OS Aiming to provide an ‘out of the box’ experience, containing various enhancements over Ubuntu.[104]
Trisquel GNU/Linux Fully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases.[105]
TurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library Open source project developing a family of free, Ubuntu-based appliances optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios.[106]
UberStudent For higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners.[107]
Vinux A Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users.[108]
ZevenOS Similar to BeOS, with some extra tools.[109]


Gentoo family tree

Gentoo is a distribution designed to have highly optimized and frequently updated software.[110] Distributions based on Gentoo use the Portage package management system with emerge[111] or one of the alternative package managers.

Distribution Description
Calculate Linux Calculate Linux is a family of distributions.
Chromium OS[112] Chrome OS[113] is used on various Chromebooks, Chromeboxes and tablet computers. It is primarily Internet-based, launching each app within the Chrome browser. The OS features a user interface that is very similar-looking to Chrome instead of GNOME, KDE, etc.
CoreOS Enterprise base image with update subscription
Funtoo Linux A Linux distribution based on Gentoo.
Gentoox An adaptation of Gentoo for the Xbox.
Knopperdisk A Linux distribution aimed at USB sticks.
Pentoo Penetration-testing Live CD.
Sabayon Linux Made in Italy. It is a European Linux distribution based on Gentoo. However, it follows the "out of the box" philosophy, aiming to give the user a wide number of applications ready to use and a self-configured operating system. Like Gentoo, Sabayon uses the rolling release model; it uses a customized version of Red Hat's Anaconda Installer and includes a Media Center application.
SystemRescueCD System rescue Live CD version of Gentoo.
Tin Hat Linux Based on hardened Gentoo, this distribution is based primarily on security.
Ututo Made in Argentina.
Kogaion Romanian Linux distro based on Gentoo and Sabayon.

Also, the Gentoo project maintains its own list of distributions based on Gentoo.


Pacman is a package manager that is capable of resolving dependencies and automatically downloading and installing all necessary packages. In theory, a user need only run a single command to completely update the system.

Distribution Description
Arch Linux An i686- and x86-64-optimized distribution targeted at experienced users. Arch runs on a rolling release system and uses the pacman utility for package management.
Chakra Linux Originally derived from Arch Linux, with the latest KDE desktop. For now uses the pacman utility for package management. Strives to be Qt-only.
Frugalware Linux A general purpose Linux distribution designed for intermediate users. Has some influences from Slackware, and uses a heavily modified version of the Pacman package manager, Pacman-G2, a fork of a cvs version of the complete rewrite of Pacman-G1 by Aurelien Foret (the old monolithic Pacman-G1 is written by Judd Vinet). The packages are tar archives that are compressed using xz.[114]


Arch family tree
Distribution Description
Antergos Linux Derived from Arch Linux with GUI installer and multiple choices of Desktop Environments
ArchBang Based on Arch Linux, but also provides LiveCDs with working system and graphical installation scripts; uses Openbox as default window manager
LinHES LinHES (Linux Home Entertainment Server) designed for use on Home Theater PCs (HTPCs), providing applications for recording TV and acting as a sound and video center
Manjaro Linux Based on Arch Linux, using its own repositories and ships with XFCE (as the default desktop environment), KDE, Openbox, an net edition without GUI, and also an XFCE netbook edition
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Arch Linux without any proprietary-licensed software, plus various added packages. Packages are also built for mips64el in addition to i686 and x86_64


Red Hat family tree

Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used the RPM file format, which is today used in several package management systems. Both of these later divided into commercial and community-supported distributions. Red Hat Linux divided into a community-supported distribution sponsored by Red Hat called Fedora, and a commercially supported distribution called Red Hat Enterprise Linux, whereas SuSE divided into openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise

Distribution Description
Caldera OpenLinux A Linux distribution originally introduced by Caldera and later developed by its subsidiary Caldera Systems. It was later developed by Caldera International (which bought SCO and was renamed The SCO Group). The distribution is no longer produced. Last release: 3.1.1 – Jan. 30, 2002
cAos Linux A general purpose Linux distribution. Designed to have low overhead, run on older hardware, and be easily customizable.
Fedora Community-supported Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat. It usually features cutting-edge Linux technologies.
Lycoris Desktop/LX
Mageia A community Linux distribution initially forked from Mandriva Linux in response to the discontinuation of free versions of Mandriva Linux.
Mandriva Linux Easy to use system through its unique Control Center.
openSUSE A community-developed Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE. It maintains a strict policy of ensuring all code in the standard installs will be from Free/Libre/Open-Source Software solutions, including Linux kernel Modules. SUSE's enterprise Linux products are all based on the codebase that comes out of the openSUSE project.
PCLinuxOS A rolling release Linux Live CD distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2. Later rebased on Mandriva 2007.
Red Hat Linux Split into Fedora Core and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The last official release of the unsplit distribution was Red Hat Linux 9 in March 2003.
Turbolinux Originally based on Red Hat Linux.
Vine Linux A Japanese distribution originally based on Red Hat Linux.
YOPER A rolling release desktop distribution from New Zealand that focuses on optimizing system performance for workstation use. Discontinued.


Fedora family tree

is a community supported distribution. It aims to provide the latest software while maintaining a completely Free Software system.[115]

Distribution Description
Atomix a Serbian desktop and server oriented Linux distribution
Aurora SPARC Linux For Sun's SPARC architecture
Berry Linux A medium-sized Fedora-based distribution that provides support in Japanese and English.
EduLinux For educational purposes
EnGarde Secure Linux Server-only Linux distribution designed to be secure.[116]
Fuduntu Designed to fit in somewhere between Fedora and Ubuntu.
Hanthana Designed to cater the needs of Sri Lankan computer users who are unable to access Internet frequently, with many most-wanted applications built in.
K12LTSP A distribution for educational purpose. Comes with LTSP support.
Korora Initially aimed at easy installation of a Gentoo system by using install scripts instead of manual configuration. Now based on Fedora.
Linpus Linux Focused on the Chinese market, along with Linpus Lite focused on the netbook market.
MeeGo Built by Intel and Nokia, intended for mobile phones (mainly Nokia N9) and tablets. It is based on Moblin together with Maemo.
Moblin Built around the Intel Atom processor; supplanted by Meego when Intel and (temporarily) Nokia combined activities
MythDora Specialized Linux distribution for easy setup of the MythTV PVR software, similar to KnoppMyth, based on Fedora.
Network Security Toolkit A Live CD/DVD with security and networking tools to perform routine security and networking diagnostic and monitoring tasks.
Ojuba Linux Focused on providing the best Arabic support, as well as some Islamic tools such as Hijra (Hijri calendar) and Minbar (prayer time indicator).
Qubes OS Focused on security for desktop users.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Red Hat's officially supported distribution. Meant for enterprise use.
Russian Fedora Remix A remix of Fedora.
Sugar-on-a-Stick Linux An educational operating system for the children of the world, originally designed for the One-Laptop-Per-Child project.
Trustix A Linux distribution focused on security.[117]
Xange Xange (formerly Simplis, formerly Vixta) is a distribution that tries to emulate the appearance of Windows Vista. It is based on KDE.
Yellow Dog Linux For the PowerPC platform.


Distribution Description
Asianux A Linux distribution co-developed between Red Flag Software Co., Ltd., Miracle Linux Corp. and Haansoft, INC., focused on Chinese, Japanese and Korean support.
CentOS Community-supported distribution that aims to be compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux without the inclusion of proprietary software.
ClearOS Small Business Server. File, Print, Messaging, UTM, VPN.
Fermi Linux LTS Based on Scientific Linux.[118]
Miracle Linux Developed by Japanese software vendor Miracle Linux Co., Ltd
Oracle Linux Supported by Oracle. Aims to be fully compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Red Flag Linux A Linux distribution developed in China and optimized for the Chinese market. Based on Asianux.
Rocks Cluster Distribution A Linux distribution for building a High-Performance Computing computer cluster, with a recent release supporting Cloud computing. It is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux but with extensions to support large multi-node heterogeneous systems for clusters (HPC), Cloud, and Data Warehousing (in development).
Scientific Linux A Linux distribution co-developed by Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
SME Server Based on CentOS and targeting Small and Medium Enterprises.

Mandriva Linux-based

Mandriva family tree
Distribution Description
Annvix A security-focused server Linux distribution. Originally based on Mandrake 9.2 but has diverged a lot. Discontinued.
TinyMe Based on Unity Linux, targeted to be as lightweight as possible.
Trinity Rescue Kit Aimed specifically at offline operations for Windows and Linux systems such as rescue, repair, password resets and disk cloning
Unity Linux Meant to be a base for custom distributions.
Mageia Community-based fork. Especially for beginners with its startup-screen.


Distribution Description
Cr OS Linux A lightweight Linux distribution based on openSUSE with Cinnamon desktop environment.
Linkat A Linux distribution promoted by the government of Catalonia, Spain.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop Previously branded Novell Linux Desktop. A desktop-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the enterprise market.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server A server-oriented Linux distribution supplied by SUSE and targeted at the business market.


Slackware family tree

Slackware is known as a highly customizable distribution that stresses ease of maintenance and reliability over cutting-edge software and automated tools. Generally considered a distribution for advanced users, it is often suggested to those who want to learn the inner workings of a Linux operating system.

Distribution Description
Austrumi Linux An 108 MB bootable live CD as of version 1.9.3
BasicLinux A mini Linux designed to run in old PCs (386). Has a certain degree of compatibility with Slackware packages.
Frugalware Frugalware Linux is a general-purpose Linux distribution designed for intermediate users who are familiar with command-line operations. Early versions were based on Slackware, but it is now an independently developed distribution.
HostGIS HostGIS Linux is a Slackware-based distribution specifically made for handling GIS information.
KateOS A desktop Linux distribution aimed at intermediate users. It uses Xfce as its default desktop environment. No longer in development.
MuLinux Floppy-based Linux distribution with replaceable modules.
NimbleX Completely customizable through the NimbleX website. Now no longer producing new versions.
Platypux A French Linux distribution of the Slackware family
Salix OS Originally a fork of Zenwalk, Salix is a complete Linux distribution fully backwards compatible with Slackware.

Uses Xfce, KDE, LXDE, Fluxbox or Ratpoison as its default desktop environment. 32 and 64bits version. Live versions are also available.

Sentry Firewall A firewall, server or intrusion detection system Linux distribution.
simpleLinux simpleLinux uses LZMA compression to compress its system files. The project started on year 2007 by a group of Malaysian developer. simpleLinux is a Slackware-based distribution that comes in both Live CD or Persistence version that can be installed to a medium. simpleLinux comes to be a multi-tasking operating system that runs the X Window System.
Slackintosh An unofficial port of Slackware to the PowerPC architecture.
Slamd64 An unofficial port of Slackware to the x86-64 architecture.
Slax A live CD which aims to provide a complete desktop for general use. Permanent installation of Slax is not recommended or supported; it is designed for "live" use only. Also can be run from a USB flash drive.
SuperGamer A Live DVD Linux Distribution focused on gaming.
Topologilinux Designed to run from within Microsoft Windows, Topologilinux can be installed without any changes to the user's hard disk. Outdated.
VectorLinux A lightweight Linux distribution designed to be easy to use even for new users. Generally considered well-suited for older hardware.
WinLinux A Linux distro that runs on a FAT32 FS.
Wolvix A desktop-oriented Linux distribution based on Slackware, mainly targeted at home users, featuring Xfce. No longer available
Zenwalk Originally a minimal version of Slackware, Zenwalk has evolved into a very different operating system; however, compatibility with Slackware is still maintained.
ZipSlack A lightweight and portable version of Slackware


Slax's modularity and reputation of quality have made it a popular base for other live CD projects.

Distribution Description
DAVIX A Linux Live CD for data analysis and visualisation.
DNALinux A small Linux distribution designed for running bioinformatics software, including BLAST and EMBOSS.
Emnix A Slax-based Linux distribution focused around portability and practicality. Production has ceased and Emnix replaced with Project Esma.
Porteus A small Linux distro based on Slax.


The following distributions can not be categorized under the preceding sections.

Distribution Description
Alpine Linux A security-oriented, lightweight Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox.
Bifrost Small, for networking.
Billix A live CD or live USB system administration toolkit and multi-boot distribution with the ability to install any of the included distributions.
Coyote Linux Router/firewall Linux distribution.
CRUX CRUX is a lightweight, x86-64-optimized Linux distribution targeted at experienced users. The focus is "keep it simple", which is reflected in a simple tar.xz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts, and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages
DD-WRT Embedded firewall Linux distribution.
Devil-Linux Router/firewall/server Linux distribution running from CD or USB. Configuration held on USB or floppy disk.
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre A Linux distribution written entirely from scratch[119] and sharing some similarities with Slackware. Approved by the GNU Project as a free operating system.[120]
DSLinux Version of Linux designed for the Nintendo DS.
ELinOS Linux distribution for embedded systems by SYSGO. ELinOS focuses on industrial application and provides real-time extensions.
Familiar Linux Linux distribution for iPAQ handhelds.
fli4l Router/firewall Linux distribution.[121]
Foresight Linux A rolling release Linux distribution built around the Conary package manager.
FREESCO A free replacement for proprietary routers supporting up to 10 network cards and up to 10 modems.
GeeXboX Live CD media center Linux distribution, mainly to play special-encoded video files (e.g.: .ogg, XVID) on home theater.
GoboLinux An alternative Linux distribution which redefines the file system hierarchy by installing everything belonging to one application in one folder under /Programs, and using symlinks from /System and its subfolders to point to the proper files.
IPCop Router/firewall Linux distribution.
Jlime Linux distribution for the HP Jornada 6xx and 7xx and NEC MobilePro 900(c) handhelds.
Lightweight Portable Security (LPS)[122] A distribution created by the United States Department of Defense that boots entirely in RAM
Lunar Linux A source code-based Linux distribution descended from Sorcerer.
MCC Interim Linux MCC Interim Linux, possibly the first Linux distribution. Created by the Manchester Computing Centre in February 1992.
MkLinux A legacy Linux distribution for PowerPC systems that runs the Linux kernel as a server on top of the Mach microkernel.
Mobilinux By Montavista for smartphones.
MontaVista Linux Embedded systems Linux distribution by MontaVista Software.
NASLite a floppy-based Linux designed to turn an old computer into a simple Network Attached Storage device.
Nitix Developed by Net Integration Technologies Inc., Nitix claims to be the first autonomic Linux kernel–based server operating system.
NixOS Declarative Linux distribution with atomic upgrades and rollbacks built on top Nix package manager
OpenTV 5 Developed by Nagra, next generation television middleware for connected media convergence platform.
OpenWrt Router/firewall Linux distribution, also other embedded systems, a lot of routing options via opkg available
paldo Independently developed desktop operating system and package manager (upkg) with a rolling release format and standard Gnome environment.
PS2 Linux Sony Computer Entertainment Linux distribution released officially for the PlayStation 2 video game console.
Puppy Linux A mini Linux distribution which runs well under low-end PCs – even under 32 MB RAM.
rPath A distribution built around the Conary package manager. Discontinued.
SliTaz With less than 40 MB a very small Live-Distribution, which uses 256 MB RAM (or with a special edition only 24 MB[123]) for a complete GUI.
Smallfoot Developed by the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO UNIX / SCO Group), formerly Caldera International and Caldera Systems – based on Caldera OpenLinux 3.x and 4.x binaries.
SmoothWall Router/firewall Linux distribution.
Softlanding Linux System One of the earliest Linux distributions, developed from 1992–1994; Slackware was originally based on it.
Sorcerer A source code-based Linux distribution.
Source Mage A source code-based Linux distribution, descended from Sorcerer.
Stable Hybrid Release For smartphones, offering Enlightenment's Illume user interface. It is based on FSO.
Thinstation Thin client Linux distribution supporting all major connectivity protocols.
Tinfoil Hat Linux Bootable floppy Linux distribution focusing on extreme security
Tiny Core Linux Tiny Core Linux is a minimalist (around 10 MB) Linux system focusing on providing a base system with BusyBox, FLTK and other minimalist software.
tomsrtbt Root boot disk.
Tor-ramdisk An i686 uClibc-based micro Linux distribution (about 5 MB) that runs in system memory and whose only purpose is to host a Tor server in an environment that maximizes security and privacy.
Void Linux Void is a general purpose operating system, based on the monolithic Linux kernel. Its package system allows you to quickly install, update and remove software; software is provided in binary packages or can be built directly from sources with the help of the XBPS source packages collection.
Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X One of the oldest Linux distributions, not updated since 1995.

See also


  1. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: deb - Debian binary package format". Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  2. ^ "Ubuntu Manpage: dpkg - package manager for Debian". Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  3. ^ 64 Studio website
  4. ^ aptosid website
  5. ^ (Russian) Astra Linux
  6. ^ BOSS Linux website
  7. ^ BunsenLabs Linux website
  8. ^ Canaima website
  9. ^ Corel Linux history
  10. ^ CrunchBang Linux website
  11. ^
  12. ^ Stahie, Silviu (28 November 2014). "Fork Debian Project Announces the Systemd-less OS Devuan". Softpedia. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  13. ^ Elive website
  14. ^ "Emdebian Grip packages: A smaller Debian-compatible distro". Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  15. ^ Finnix website
  16. ^ grml website
  17. ^ Wiki Debian HandyLinux Debian Derivatives Census
  18. ^ Instant WebKiosk project page
  19. ^ Kali website
  20. ^ Kanotix website
  21. ^ Knoppix website
  22. ^ LEAF Project website
  23. ^ LiMux website
  24. ^
  25. ^ Maemo website
  26. ^ MEPIS website
  27. ^ MEPIS website
  28. ^ MintPPC website
  29. ^ Musix GNU+Linux website
  30. ^ NepaLinux website
  31. ^ OpenZaurus website
  32. ^ Parsix website
  33. ^ PelicanHPC website
  34. ^ Rxart website
  35. ^
  36. ^ Sacix project page
  37. ^ Siduction website
  38. ^ Skolelinux website
  39. ^ SolusOS website
  40. ^ SolydXK website
  41. ^ Sunwah Linux website
  42. ^ Symphony OS website
  43. ^ SalineOS website
  44. ^ TAILS website
  45. ^ Ubuntu website
  46. ^ Ulteo website
  47. ^ Univention Corporate Server website
  48. ^ Webconverger website
  49. ^ Vyatta website
  50. ^ Knoppix Wiki
  51. ^ Damn Small Linux website
  52. ^ Feather Linux website
  53. ^ Hikarunix website
  54. ^ About Ubuntu – Official website
  55. ^ "About Ubuntu Derivatives".  
  56. ^ Edubuntu website
  57. ^ Kubuntu website
  58. ^ Ubuntu GNOME approved as official flavour
  59. ^ Ubuntu GNOME
  60. ^ Sneddon, Joey (1 March 2015). "Ubuntu 15.04 Beta Available to Download, Ubuntu MATE Is Now An Official Flavor". OMG Ubuntu. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  61. ^ Smart, Chris (May 2009). "Another day, another Ubuntu derivative.". Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  62. ^  
  63. ^ Lubuntu website
  64. ^ Xubuntu website
  65. ^ Mythbuntu website
  66. ^ Ubuntu for Android website
  67. ^ Ubuntu Server Edition website
  68. ^ Ubuntu Studio website
  69. ^ Ubuntu TV website
  70. ^ Gobuntu information
  71. ^ Ubuntu JeOS information
  72. ^ "Ubuntu to announce its mobile Linux in June". 
  73. ^ Aurora website
  74. ^ Baltix website
  75. ^ BackBox website
  76. ^ a b BackTrack website
  77. ^ BlankOn website
  78. ^ Bodhi Linux website
  79. ^ Official Cubuntu website
  80. ^ dyne:bolic website
  81. ^ EasyPeasy website
  82. ^ Element OS website
  83. ^ elementary OS website
  84. ^ Emmabuntüs website
  85. ^ Guadalinex website
  86. ^ Joli OS website
  87. ^ Impi Linux website
  88. ^ Karoshi website
  89. ^ Kuki Linux website
  90. ^ Linux Mint website
  91. ^ LinuxMCE website
  92. ^ LinuxTLE website
  93. ^ LliureX website
  94. ^ LOUD website
  95. ^ MAX website
  96. ^ Molinux website
  97. ^ Moon OS website
  98. ^ Netrunner website
  99. ^ OpenGEU website
  100. ^ "About Peppermint OS". 
  101. ^ Pinguy OS Homepage
  102. ^ Qimo 4 Kids website
  103. ^ Sabily website
  104. ^ Super OS website
  105. ^ Trisquel Linux website
  106. ^ TurnKey Linux website
  107. ^ UberStudent website
  108. ^ Vinux website
  109. ^ ZevenOS website
  110. ^ About Gentoo
  111. ^ Portage – Gentoo Handbook
  112. ^ "Chromium OS Developer Guide". Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  113. ^ "Chromium Project FAQ". 
  114. ^ "About Frugalware". Frugalware Stable Documentation. Frugalware Project. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  115. ^ Objectives – Fedora Project
  116. ^ EnGarde Secure Linux
  117. ^ Trustix Secure Linux
  118. ^ Fermi Linux
  119. ^ Bruce Byfield: Eight Completely Free Linux Distros (And One More), 2011.
  120. ^ List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions - GNU Project, Free Software Foundation, retrieved 2014-12-15 
  121. ^ fli4l website
  122. ^ "Software Protection Initiative - Main". Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  123. ^ "SliTaz LiveCD Flavors". Association SliTaz. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 

External links

  • – Screenshots of many Linux distributions.
  • – Lists all known Linux distributions at a glance.
  • The Linux Distribution List – Categorized list with information about each entry.
  • Distrowatch – Announcements, information, links and popularity ranking for many Linux distributions.
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