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Machine translation

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  • ^ Adam Boretz. "Boretz, Adam, "AppTek Launches Hybrid Machine Translation Software" (posted 2 MAR 2009)". Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  • ^ Milestones in machine translation – No.6: Bar-Hillel and the nonfeasibility of FAHQT by John Hutchins
  • ^ Bar-Hillel (1960), "Automatic Translation of Languages". Available online at
  • ^ a b Claude Piron, Le défi des langues (The Language Challenge), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1994.
  • ^ [张政.计算机语言学与机器翻译导论.外语教学与研究出版社,2010]
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  • ^ a b c Vossen, Piek: Ontologies. In: Mitkov, Ruslan (ed.) (2003): Handbook of Computational Linguistics, Chapter 25. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  • ^ J.M. Cohen observes (p.14): "Scientific translation is the aim of an age that would reduce all activities to techniques. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination."
  • ^ See the annually performed NIST tests since 2001 and Bilingual Evaluation Understudy
  • ^ Muegge (2006), "Fully Automatic High Quality Machine Translation of Restricted Text: A Case Study," in Translating and the computer 28. Proceedings of the twenty-eighth international conference on translating and the computer, 16–17 November 2006, London, London: Aslib. ISBN 978-0-85142-483-5.
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  • ^ a b Zhao, L., Kipper, K., Schuler, W., Vogler, C., & Palmer, M. (2000). A Machine Translation System from English to American Sign Language. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1934: 54–67.
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