World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Open back unrounded vowel

Article Id: WHEBN0000597014
Reproduction Date:

Title: Open back unrounded vowel  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Open central unrounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, A, Egyptian Arabic phonology
Collection: Vowels
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Open back unrounded vowel

Open back unrounded vowel
ɑ
IPA number 305
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɑ
Unicode (hex) U+0251
X-SAMPA A
Kirshenbaum A
Braille ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
Sound
 ·

The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɑ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is A. The letter ɑ is called script a because it lacks the extra hook on top of a printed letter a, which corresponds to a different vowel, the open front unrounded vowel. Script a, which has its linear stroke on the bottom right, should not be confused with turned script a, ɒ, which has its linear stroke on the top left and corresponds to a rounded version of this vowel, the open back rounded vowel.

The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels,[1] which is extremely unusual.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •
  • Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2][3] daar [dɑːr] 'there' See Afrikaans phonology
Angor ape [ɑpe] 'father'
Arabic Standard[4] طويل [tˤɑˈwiːl] 'tall' Allophone of long and short /a/ near emphatic consonants, depending on the speaker's accent. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[4] հաց [hɑt͡sʰ] 'bread'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Tyari dialects baba [bɑːba] 'father' Corresponds to [a ~ ä] in other varieties.
Danish[5] Conservative[6] barn [ˈb̥ɑːˀn] 'child' Described variously as open near-back[5] and near-open back.[6] Realized as open central [ä] in contemporary Standard Danish.[7][8][9][10][11] See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam[12] aap [ɑːp] 'monkey' Corresponds to [ ~ äː] in standard Dutch.
Antwerp[13]
Utrecht[13]
Southern Randstad[14] bad [bɑt] 'bath' Backness varies among dialects; in the southern Randstad and standard Netherlandic Dutch it is fully back.[15][16] In addition to being fully back, it is raised to [ɑ̝] in Leiden and Rotterdam, sometimes with lip rounding [ɒ̝].[15] In standard Belgian Dutch it is raised and fronted to [ɑ̝̈].[17] See Dutch phonology
Standard[16][17]
The Hague[18] nauw [nɑː] 'narrow' Corresponds to [ʌu] in standard Dutch.
English Cardiff[19] hot [hɑ̝̈t] 'hot' Somewhat raised and fronted.
Norfolk[20]
General American[21] [hɑt] May be more front [ɑ̟ ~ ä], especially in accents without the cot-caught merger. See English phonology
Cockney[22] bath [bɑːθ] 'bath' Fully back. It can be more front [ɑ̟ː] instead.
General
South African[23]
Fully back. Broad varieties usually produce a rounded vowel [ɒː ~ ɔː] instead, while Cultivated SAE prefers a more front vowel [ɑ̟ː ~ äː].
Cultivated
South African[24]
[bɑ̟ːθ] Typically more front than cardinal [ɑ]. It may be as front as [äː] in some Cultivated South African and southern English speakers. See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[25]
Non-local Dublin[26] back [bɑq] 'back' Allophone of /æ/ before velars for some speakers.[26]
Estonian[27] vale [ˈvɑ̝lɛˑ] 'wrong' Near-open.[27] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[28] kana [ˈkɑ̝nɑ̝] 'hen' Near-open,[28] also described as open central [ä].[29] See Finnish phonology
French Conservative Parisian[30] pas [pɑ] 'not' Contrasts with [a], but many speakers have only one open vowel [ä]. See French phonology
Quebec pâte [pɑːt] 'paste' See Quebec French phonology
[31] გუდ [ɡudɑ] 'leather bag'
German Some dialects Tag [tʰɑːk] 'day' In other dialects it is more front. See German phonology.
Zurich dialect[32] mane [ˈmɑːnə] 'remind' Allophone of /ɒ/, in free variation with [ɒ].[32]
Inuit West Greenlandic[33] Allophone of /a/ before and especially between uvulars.[33] See Inuit phonology
Kaingang[34] [ˈᵑɡɑ] 'terra' Varies between back [ɑ] and central [ɐ].[35]
Limburgish[1][36][37][38] bats [bɑts] 'buttock' Backness varies from fully back [ɑ] to almost central [ɑ̟], depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.[38]
Luxembourgish[39] Kapp [kʰɑ̝pʰ] 'head' Fully back and raised.[39] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay Kedah dialect[40] mata [matɑ] 'eye' See Malay phonology
Navajo ashkii [ɑʃkɪː] 'boy' See Navajo phonology
Norwegian Fredrikstad[41] hat [hɑːt] 'hate' See Norwegian phonology
Stavangersk[42]
Trondheimsk[41]
Plautdietsch Gott [ɡɑ̽t] 'God'
Russian[43] палка [ˈpɑɫkə] 'stick' Occurs only both before /ɫ/ and after an unpalatalized consonant. See Russian phonology
Swedish Some dialects jаg [jɑːɡ] 'I' Weakly rounded [ɒ̜ː] in Central Standard Swedish.[44] See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian мати [ˈmɑtɪ] 'mother' See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian lang [ɫɑŋ] 'long'

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  2. ^ Lass (1984), pp. 76, 93–94 and 105.
  3. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 7.
  4. ^ a b Thelwall & Sa'Adeddin (1990), p. 39.
  5. ^ a b Fischer-Jørgensen (1972)
  6. ^ a b Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  7. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  8. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  9. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:46)
  11. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 78, 104 and 133.
  13. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 104 and 133.
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 96 and 131.
  15. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 131.
  16. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  17. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  18. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  19. ^ Coupland (1990), p. 95.
  20. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  21. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  22. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  23. ^ Lass (2002), p. 117.
  24. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116-117.
  25. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  26. ^ a b "Glossary". Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  27. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  28. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  29. ^ Maddieson (1984), cited in Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  30. ^ Ashby (2011), p. 100.
  31. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  32. ^ a b Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 248.
  33. ^ a b Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  34. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677 and 682.
  35. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676 and 682.
  36. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  37. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  38. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  39. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  40. ^ Zaharani Ahmad (1991).
  41. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 16.
  42. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  43. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 50.
  44. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.

Bibliography

  • Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, London: Routledge,  
  • Ashby, Patricia (2011), Understanding Phonetics, Understanding Language series, Routledge,  
  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372,  
  •  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change,  
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140–142,  
  •  
  • Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 243–253,  
  • Fortescue, Michael (1990), "Basic Structures and Processes in West Greenlandic", in Collins, Dirmid R. F., Arctic Languages: An Awakening (PDF), Paris: UNESCO, pp. 309–332,  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  •  
  • Lass, Roger (1984), "Vowel System Universals and Typology: Prologue to Theory",  
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, pp. 167–169,  
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sounds, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,  
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245,  
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Suomi, Kari; Toivanen, Juhani; Ylitalo, Riikka (2008), Finnish sound structure,  
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Adeddin, M. Akram (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–39,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Wells, J.C. (1982). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.