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Rize

Rize
Municipality
Panoramic view of Rize.
Panoramic view of Rize.
Rize is located in Turkey
Rize
Coordinates:
Country Turkey
Province Rize
Government
 • Mayor Reşat Kasap (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 250.14 km2 (96.58 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 104,508
 • District 141,524
 • District density 570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Post code 5300
Climate Cfa
Website .tr.bel.rizewww

Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
  • Climate 4
  • Economy 5
  • Education 6
  • Culture 7
  • History 8
  • Notable natives 9
  • Population figures 10
  • Notes 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

Etymology

The name comes from Laz name is Rizini (რიზინი)[5]

History

The first written mention of Rize is made by Arrian in a work named Periplus (Ship's Voyage).[6] Dated at 132-131 B.C., the work records how its author, the governor of Cappadocia, made an inspection tour of the Eastern Black Sea territories that were part of his jurisdiction, first visiting the Roman Empire's Eastern Anatolian frontier garrisons before pushing on to the Black Sea coast in the Trabzon (Trebizond) region. Note: Arrian only mentions the River Rhizius, not any settlement by that name. It is quoted as being to the east of the river Ophis after the rivers Psychrus and Calus. Also, the Periplus or Voyage Round the Euxine Sea is a letter written to Emperor Caesar Adrian Augustus, i.e., during the Common Era and not before Christ, so it may have been written more towards 131-132 AD or CE. [ARRIAN'S VOYAGE ROUND EUXINE SEA TRANSLATED AND ACCOMPANIED WITH A GEOGRAPHICAL DISSERTATION,AND MAPS TO WHICH ARE ADDED THREE DISCOURSES, I. On the Trade to the East Indies by means of the Euxine Sea. II. On the Distance which the Ships of Antiquity usually sailed in twenty-four Hours. III. On the Measure of the Olympic Stadium. OXFORD: SOLD BY J. COOKE; AND BY MESSRS. CADELL AND DAVIESr STRAND, LONDON. 1805.

Geography

View of Rize
Rize, 1910's, Ottoman era postcard

The city is built around a small bay on the Black Sea coast, on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea and the mountains behind. The coastal strip is being expanded with landfill and the city is growing up the steep hillsides away from the coast. Rize enjoys a mild, extremely wet climate, vulnerable to storms coming off the Black Sea and therefore the surrounding countryside is rich with vegetation and is attracting more and more visitors every year.

Rize is a center for processing and shipping Erzurum (north). The nearest airport is in Trabzon.

Rize is a quiet town, a typical Turkish provincial capital with little in the way of night life or entertainment. However the border with Georgia has been open since the early 90's, the Black Sea coast road has been widened and Rize is now wealthier than in previous decades; there are more cars in the streets, higher buildings on the sea front, and some places for young people to go are opening up now. The visitors to the surrounding countryside also contribute to the economy of the town.

Climate

Rize has a borderline oceanic/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb/Cfa), like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey, with warm summers and cool winters. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows. Rize and the eastern part of the Black Sea coast where it is situated has the highest precipitation in western Asia, with an annual precipitation averaging around 2,500 millimetres (100 in), with heavy rainfall year round and a maximum in late autumn (October to December). The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation in Turkey and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The water temperature, as in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast, is always cool, fluctuating between 8 and 20 °C (46 and 68 °F) throughout the year.

Climate data for Rize (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
28.1
(82.6)
32.6
(90.7)
35.8
(96.4)
38.2
(100.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.4
(95.7)
34.0
(93.2)
33.4
(92.1)
33.4
(92.1)
29.2
(84.6)
26.7
(80.1)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
10.6
(51.1)
11.9
(53.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.3
(66.7)
23.7
(74.7)
26.1
(79)
26.5
(79.7)
24.0
(75.2)
20.4
(68.7)
16.3
(61.3)
12.9
(55.2)
18.14
(64.65)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.4
(43.5)
7.9
(46.2)
11.6
(52.9)
16.0
(60.8)
20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73)
23.0
(73.4)
19.9
(67.8)
16.0
(60.8)
11.7
(53.1)
8.5
(47.3)
14.22
(57.58)
Average low °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
3.4
(38.1)
4.8
(40.6)
8.4
(47.1)
12.5
(54.5)
16.5
(61.7)
19.6
(67.3)
19.9
(67.8)
16.8
(62.2)
12.9
(55.2)
8.6
(47.5)
5.4
(41.7)
11.02
(51.83)
Record low °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−6.4
(20.5)
−7
(19)
−2.8
(27)
4.2
(39.6)
7.8
(46)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
9.2
(48.6)
2.5
(36.5)
0.4
(32.7)
−4
(25)
−7
(19)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 218.8
(8.614)
178.5
(7.028)
150.9
(5.941)
97.4
(3.835)
97.4
(3.835)
137.6
(5.417)
146.7
(5.776)
186.9
(7.358)
240.8
(9.48)
288.7
(11.366)
248.5
(9.783)
244.0
(9.606)
2,236.2
(88.039)
Average precipitation days 15.2 14.1 15.9 15.6 14.7 14.5 14.4 14.9 15.2 15.6 14.1 15.2 179.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.1 84.0 111.6 135 179.8 201 164.3 158.1 153 127.1 84 58.9 1,521.9
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [8]

Economy

Historically, Rize grew oranges. However, weather destroyed the crops in the early 20th century, and the industry declined.[9] The area also produced small amounts of manganese.[10]

The economic structure of Rize is based primarily around its geographic location. Rize is a very mountainous city, making industrial development difficult and impractical. Given the lack of air and rail transit, most goods have to travel by truck or ship, which makes exporting and importing difficult. Rize's primary trading partner is Trabzon, the most developed city of northeast Black Sea region. Rize's main exports are agriculturally based; tea and kiwifruit are among its most popular commodities.

Education

Rize University was founded in 2006.

Culture

Entrance to Rize Castle
  • Rize Castle

History

Notable natives

Çaykur Rizespor, the local football team, play in the Turkish Super League and are local heroes, occasionally capable of defeating even the big Istanbul teams. They play in green and blue, reflecting the blue of the sea and the green of the tea growing on the hillsides.

Others who have never lived in Rize but come from Rize families include:

Population figures

Year Population
1975 36,044
1980 43,407
1985 50,221
1990 52,031
1997 73,420
2000 78,144
2009 96,503

Notes

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ Rize article from encyclopedia of Black Sea. Özhan Öztürk, 2005
  4. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 959
  5. ^ Öztürk claims that it amy be related with Laz irizeni means "flat places" Özhan Öztürk.Pontus: Antiçağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi. Ankara, 2011 ISBN 978-605-54-1017-9 pp. 739-740
  6. ^ An Overview of Rize's History
  7. ^ Rize Çayı ve Rize kenti (tr)
  8. ^ İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü
  9. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62. 
  10. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 73. 

References

  • [Encyclopedic Dictionary of Black Sea]. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. Istanbul. ISBN 978-975-6121-00-9

External links

  • Rize
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