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State Shinto

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Title: State Shinto  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Controversies surrounding Yasukuni Shrine, Shinto, Shinto Directive, Chōsen Jingū, Japanese new religions
Collection: Empire of Japan, Japanese Nationalism, Shinto
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

State Shinto

Empire of Japan banknote with Yasukuni Shrine, now a private corporation due to the Shinto Directive.

State Shintō (国家神道 Kokka Shintō) is a

  1. ^ Isomae, Jun'ichi (2013). "Religion, Secularity, and the Articulation of the 'Indigenous' in Modernizing Japan". In Bernhard Scheid. Kami Ways in Nationalist Territory. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 23–50.  
  2. ^ Josephson, Jason Ānanda (2012). The Invention of Religion in Japan. University of Chicago Press. p. 94.  
  3. ^ Isomae, Jun'ichi (2007). "The Formative Process of State Shintō in Relation to the Westernization of Japan: the Concept of ‘Religion’ and ‘Shintō’". In Timothy Fitzgerald. Religion and the Secular: Historical and Colonial Formations. Equinix. p. 96.  
  4. ^ Maxey, Trent E. (2014). The "greatest problem" : religion and state formation in Meiji Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center. p. 19.  
  5. ^ Josephson, Jason Ānanda (2012). The Invention of Religion in Japan. University of Chicago Press. p. 133.  
  6. ^ Thomas, Jolyon Baraka (2014). Japan's Preoccupation with Religious Freedom (Ph.D.). Princeton University. p. 76. 
  7. ^ Nitta, Hitoshi (2000). "Religion, Secularity, and the Articulation of the 'Indigenous' in Modernizing Japan". In John Breen. Shintō in History: Ways of the Kami. Shintō as a ‘Non-Religion’: The Origins and Development of an Idea. p. 266.  
  8. ^ Nakai, Kate Wildman (2013). "Coming to Terms With 'Reverence at Shrines'". In Bernhard Scheid. Kami Ways in Nationalist Territory. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 109–154.  


Subordinate institutions
Name Translation Establishment Abolition Shrines Sect Shinto Buddhism Christianity Other sects
Department of Rites January 1868 February 1868  
Secretary of Rites February 1868 April 1868  
Bureau of Rites April 1868 August 1871  
Minbushō shajigakari
Ministry of Civil Affairs,
Department of Temples and Shrines
July 1870 October 1870 limited    
Minbushō jiinryō
Ministry of Civil Affairs,
Autoridad de Templos
October 1870 July 1871    
Ōkurasho kosekiryō shajika
Ministry of Finance,
Autoridad de Registros Censales,
Department of Temples and Shrines
July 1871 March 1872 limited  
Ministry of Rites Agosto 1871 March 1872  
Ministry of Sects March 1872 January 1877        
Naimushō shajikyoku
Home Ministry,
Bureau of Temples and Shrines
January 1877 April 1900          
Naimushō jinjakyoku
Home Ministry,
Bureau of Shrines
April 1900 November 1940  
Naimushō shūkyōkyoku
Home Ministry,
Bureau of Religions
April 1900 June 1913        
Monbushō shūkyōkyoku
Ministry of Education,
Religions Bureau
June 1913 November 1942        
Naimushō jingiin
Home Ministry
Shrines Committee
November 1940 February 1946  
Monbushō kyōkakyoku shūkyōka
Ministry of Education,
Bureau of Education,
Religions Department
February 1942 November 1943        
Monbushō kyōgakukyoku shūkyōka
Ministry of Education,
Bureau of Educational Affairs,
Religions Department
November 1943 October 1945        
Monbushō shakaikyōikukyoku shūkyōka
Ministry of Education,
Bureau of Social Education,
Religions Department
October 1945 March 1946          
Monbudaijin kanbō shūmuka
Secretary of Ministry of Education,
Religious Affairs Department
March 1946 August 1952          
Monbushō chōsakyoku shūmuka
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology,
Religious Affairs Department
August 1952 -          

The following table shows the evolution of the Japanese government institutions related to shrines and religion from the Meiji Restoration to the present. From this table, it can be seen that shrines and religions were controlled by the same department from 1872 to 1900, but by separate departments before and after.

Government offices

After the surrender of Japan American Occupation authorities determined that Japan had constructed a "state religion". In December 1945, the elements of this State Shinto were announced and privatized. On 1 January 1946, Emperor Shōwa issued a statement, sometimes referred to as the Humanity Declaration, in which he quoted the Five Charter Oath of Emperor Meiji and announced that he was not an Akitsumikami and Japan was not built on myths. As a result of the privatization of shrines, Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, a monument to war dead, has become a "religious corporation".

[8] announced that visits to shrines had "only a purely civil value".Propaganda Fide declared that attendance at shrines was not a matter of religious faith but of respect for one's ancestors and the nation. In 1936, the Catholic Church's Home Ministry In a 1911 article, the head of the [7] gate was restricted to government-owned shrines.torii It seems clear that a number of rules were established to keep shrines separated from sectarian doctrines and religion in general. For example, preaching at shrines was forbidden, shrine officials were prohibited from conducting funerals, and the use of the [6]'s constitutional system "should be considered a secular system rather than a system of state religion."Empire of Japan Jolyon Baraka Thomas writes that the [5] When in the early


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