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Telecommunications in Nepal

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Telecommunications in Nepal

Mahabir Pun hand-making a satellite dish in Nepal

In Nepal, operating any form of telecommunication service dates back to B.S. 1970. However, telecom service was formally provided mainly after the establishment of MOHAN AKASHWANI in B.S. 2005. Later as per the plan formulated in the First National Five year plan (2012-2017 BS); Telecommunication Department was established in B.S. 2016. To modernize the telecommunications services and to expand the services, during third five-year plan (2023-2028), Telecommunication Department was converted into Telecommunications Development Board in B.S. 2026.

After the enactment of Communications Corporation Act 2028, it was formally established as fully owned Government Corporation called Nepal Telecommunications Corporation in B.S. 2032 for the purpose of providing telecommunications services to Nepalese People. After serving the nation for 29 years with great pride and a sense of accomplishment, Nepal Telecommunication Corporation was transformed into a Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited (NDCL) from Baisakh 1, 2061. NDCL is a company registered under the companies Act 2053 with 85% government share. However, the company is known to the general public by the brand name Nepal Telecom (NT) as a registered trademark.

Nepal Telecommunications Authority (NTA) is the regulatory body of telecommunications in the country. According to the latest figures, 8 companies have been licensed to operate voice based telephony services out of which 5 are heavily invested by foreign companies.[1] The investment market of telecom is a subject of interest for many foreign companies and NTA itself as it has to prepare the regulations on hand.[2]

Some milestones:
2011 ------- Launching of GSM 3G Data Only Service
2011 ------- Launching of EasyPhone SIP PPP Service
2010 ------- Launching of EasyPhone SIP EasyCall Service
2010 ------- Soft Launch of EasyPhone IP Call Service
2010 ------- EVDO Service started
2009 ------- Postpaid CDMA Mobile Service started
2009 ------- SMS Service from GSM to CDMA mobile started
2009 ------- IVR 1606 Service extended outside Kathmandu Valley
2009 ------- IVR 198 Service extended outside KTM valley
2008 ------- PSTN VMS - Notice Board Service Launched
2008 ------- IVR 198 service extended for ADSL Fault Complaint Registration
2008 ------- IVR Service 1607 started for GSM and CDMA PUK Enquiry
2008 ------- Broadband ADSL Service launched
2007 ------- GPRS, 3G and CRBT Services introduced in GSM Mobile
2007 ------- VOIP Call Complaint Registration started via 188 IVR Service
2007 ------- PSTN Bill Enquiry Service started via 1606 IVR Service
2007 ------- Expansion of Internet Bandwidth via Optical link between Nepal & India
2007 ------- National Roaming for CDMA Mobile (Sky Phone) started
2006 ------- CDMA Limited Servies in Kathmandu Valley
2006 ------- MCC (198) Complaint Registration via IVR in Kathmandu Valley
2006 ------- Home Country Direct Service - NepalDirect (IN)
2006 ------- PSTN Credit Limit Service - PCL (IN)
2005 ------- Outsourcing of Enquiry Service (197)
2005 ------- Access Network Services
2005 ------- Soft launch of CDMA
2004 ------- Pre-paid Calling Card Service (IN Services)
2004 ------- NEPAL TELECOM (Transformation from Corporation to Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited)
2003 ------- GSM Prepaid Service
2002 ------- East West Highway Optical Fiber Project
2001 ------- Launching of Payphone Service
2000 ------- Launching of Internet Service
2000 ------- Implementation of SDH Microwave Radio
1999 ------- Launching of GSM Mobile service
1998 ------- Direct Link with Bangladesh
1997 ------- Digital Link with D.O.T. India through Optical Fiber in Birgunj - Raxual
1996 ------- Introduction of VSAT services
1996 ------- Independent Int. Gateway Exchange established
1996 ------- Automation of the entire Telephone Network
1996 ------- Conversion of all Transmission link to Digital transmission link
1995 ------- Installation of Optical Fiber Network
1987 ------- Commencement of STD service
1984 ------- Reliable Rural Telecom Service (JICA)
1984 ------- Commencement of STD service
1983 ------- Establishment of digital Telephone Exchange
1982 ------- Establishment of SPC telex exchange
1982 ------- Establishment of Standard "B" Type Earth Station for international circuits
1974 ------- Microwave transmission links establishment for internal trunk
1971 ------- Introduction of Telex Services
1965 ------- First Automatic exchange in Nepal (1000 lines in Kathmandu)
1964 ------- Beginning of International Telecommunications Service using HF Radio to India and Pakistan
1962 ------- First Public Telephone Exchange in Kathmandu (300 lines CB)
1955 ------- Distribution of telephone line to general public
1951 ------- Installation of Open Wire Trunk line from Kathmandu to Palpa
1950 ------- Establishment of CB telephone exchange (100 lines) in Kathmandu
1950 ------- Introduction to High frequency Radio System (AM)
1950 ------- Establishment of Telegram Service
1936 ------- Installation of Open Wire Trunk line from Kathmandu to Dhankuta
1935 ------- Installation of 25 lines automatic exchange in Royal Palace
1914 ------- Establishment of Open wire Trunk Link from Kathmandu to Raxaul (India)
1913 ------- Establishment of first telephone lines in Kathmandu

The first telephone exchange was established in Kathmandu in 1960. Since 1960 to 2004, the state-owned Nepal Telecommunications Corporation (NTC), also now known as Nepal Telecom, or Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited (NDCL) had been the monopoly telecom carrier. Now, other competing telecom service providers are United Telecom Limited (UTL), and Ncell.

Telephones - PSTN: 644,347 (May 2013), CDMA[3]

Telephones - Cellular service available by Nepal Telecom, formerly known as Nepal Telecommunications Corporation (NTC) and Spice Nepal (Pvt.) Ltd.

Telephone system: Good telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network
Domestic: Microwave + Optical Fiber
International: Radiotelephone Communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Mobile Subscribers: 18,137,771 (May 2013)[3]

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 20, shortwave 1 (January 2000)

Radios: 20,00,000 (2006)

Television broadcast stations: 19 (37 registered) (2012)

Televisions: 130,000 (1997)

Registered Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 42 (May 2013)[3]

Internet users: 6,685,427 (May 2013)[3]

Country code : 00977

Internet sites:

External links

  1. ^ All telecom companies in Nepal to be Public – NTA Cross Holding Study Reports,, retrieved January 22, 2014.
  2. ^ NTA study report (pdf), January 19, 2014
  3. ^ a b c d "Nepal Telecommunications Authority, Management Information System". Nepal Telecommunications Authority. Retrieved June 2013. 
  • Official website of Nepal Telecom
  • Official website of Ncell
  • Telecommunications in Nepal related articles from a Nepalese technology website TechSansar
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