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Vapor quality

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Vapor quality

In thermodynamics, vapour quality is the mass fraction in a saturated mixture that is vapour;[1] i.e. saturated vapour has a "quality" of 100%, and saturated liquid has a "quality" of 0%. Vapour quality is an intensive property which can be used in conjunction with other independent intensive properties to specify the thermodynamic state of the working fluid of a thermodynamic system. It has no meaning for substances which are not saturated mixtures (i.e., compressed liquids or superheated fluids).

Quality \chi can be calculated by dividing the mass of the vapour by the mass of the total mixture:

\chi = \frac{m_{vapour}}{m_{total}}

where m indicates mass.

Another definition used by chemical engineers defines quality (q) of a fluid as the fraction that is saturated liquid.[2] By this definition, a saturated liquid has q = 0. A saturated vapour has q = 1.[3]

Calculation

The above expression for vapour quality can be expressed as:

\chi = \frac{y - y_f}{y_g - y_f},

where y is equal to either specific enthalpy, specific entropy, specific volume or specific internal energy, y_f is the value of the specific property of saturated liquid state and y_{g}-y_{f} is the value of the specific property of the substance in dome zone, which we can find both liquid y_{f} and vapor y_{g}.

Another expression of the same concept is:

\chi=\frac{m_v}{m_l + m_v}

where m_v is the vapour mass and m_l is the liquid mass.

Steam quality

The genesis of the idea of vapour quality was derived from the origins of thermodynamics, where an important application was the steam engine. Low quality steam would contain a high moisture percentage and therefore damage components more easilyrequire('Module:No globals')

local p = {}

-- articles in which traditional Chinese preceeds simplified Chinese local t1st = { ["228 Incident"] = true, ["Chinese calendar"] = true, ["Lippo Centre, Hong Kong"] = true, ["Republic of China"] = true, ["Republic of China at the 1924 Summer Olympics"] = true, ["Taiwan"] = true, ["Taiwan (island)"] = true, ["Taiwan Province"] = true, ["Wei Boyang"] = true, }

-- the labels for each part local labels = { ["c"] = "Chinese", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Cantonese Yale", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Zhuyin Fuhao", ["l"] = "literally", }

-- article titles for wikilinks for each part local wlinks = { ["c"] = "Chinese language", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese characters", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese characters", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Yale romanization of Cantonese", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Bopomofo", }

-- for those parts which are to be treated as languages their ISO code local ISOlang = { ["c"] = "zh", ["t"] = "zh-Hant", ["s"] = "zh-Hans", ["p"] = "zh-Latn-pinyin", ["tp"] = "zh-Latn", ["w"] = "zh-Latn-wadegile", ["j"] = "yue-jyutping", ["cy"] = "yue", ["poj"] = "hak", ["zhu"] = "zh-Bopo", }

local italic = { ["p"] = true, ["tp"] = true, ["w"] = true, ["j"] = true, ["cy"] = true, ["poj"] = true, } -- Categories for different kinds of Chinese text local cats = { ["c"] = "", ["s"] = "", ["t"] = "", }

function p.Zh(frame) -- load arguments module to simplify handling of args local getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs local args = getArgs(frame) return p._Zh(args) end function p._Zh(args) local uselinks = not (args["links"] == "no") -- whether to add links local uselabels = not (args["labels"] == "no") -- whether to have labels local capfirst = args["scase"] ~= nil

        local t1 = false -- whether traditional Chinese characters go first
        local j1 = false -- whether Cantonese Romanisations go first
        local testChar
        if (args["first"]) then
                 for testChar in mw.ustring.gmatch(args["first"], "%a+") do
          if (testChar == "t") then
           t1 = true
           end
          if (testChar == "j") then
           j1 = true
           end
         end
        end
        if (t1 == false) then
         local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
         t1 = t1st[title.text] == true
        end

-- based on setting/preference specify order local orderlist = {"c", "s", "t", "p", "tp", "w", "j", "cy", "poj", "zhu", "l"} if (t1) then orderlist[2] = "t" orderlist[3] = "s" end if (j1) then orderlist[4] = "j" orderlist[5] = "cy" orderlist[6] = "p" orderlist[7] = "tp" orderlist[8] = "w" end -- rename rules. Rules to change parameters and labels based on other parameters if args["hp"] then -- hp an alias for p ([hanyu] pinyin) args["p"] = args["hp"] end if args["tp"] then -- if also Tongyu pinyin use full name for Hanyu pinyin labels["p"] = "Hanyu Pinyin" end if (args["s"] and args["s"] == args["t"]) then -- Treat simplified + traditional as Chinese if they're the same args["c"] = args["s"] args["s"] = nil args["t"] = nil elseif (not (args["s"] and args["t"])) then -- use short label if only one of simplified and traditional labels["s"] = labels["c"] labels["t"] = labels["c"] end local body = "" -- the output string local params -- for creating HTML spans local label -- the label, i.e. the bit preceeding the supplied text local val -- the supplied text -- go through all possible fields in loop, adding them to the output for i, part in ipairs(orderlist) do if (args[part]) then -- build label label = "" if (uselabels) then label = labels[part] if (capfirst) then label = mw.language.getContentLanguage():ucfirst(. High quality steam would not corrode the steam engine. Steam engines use water vapour (steam) to drive pistons or turbines which create work. The quality of steam can be quantitatively described by steam quality (steam dryness), the proportion of saturated steam in a saturated water/steam mixture. I.e., a steam quality of 0 indicates 100% water while a steam quality of 1 (or 100%) indicates 100% steam.

The quality of steam on which steam whistles are blown is variable and may affect frequency. Steam quality determines the velocity of sound, which declines with decreasing dryness due to the inertia of the liquid phase. Also, the specific volume of steam for a given temperature decreases with decreasing dryness.[4][5]

Steam quality is very useful in determining enthalpy of saturated water/steam mixtures since the enthalpy of steam (gaseous state) is many orders of magnitude higher than enthalpy of water (liquid state).

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (7th Edition), p 13-29
  4. ^ Soo, Shao L. (1989). Particulates and Continuum: A Multiphase Fluid Dynamics. CRC Press.
  5. ^ Menon, E. Sashi. (2005). Piping Calculations Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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