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Georgia (U.S. state)

State of Georgia
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Peach State;
Empire State of the South
Motto(s): Wisdom, Justice, Moderation
Official language English
Spoken languages English, Spanish (7.42%)
Demonym Georgian
(and largest city)
Largest metro Atlanta metro area
Area Ranked 24th
 - Total 59,425 sq mi
(153,909 km2)
 - Width 230 miles (370 km)
 - Length 298 miles (480 km)
 - % water 2.6
 - Latitude 30.356 – 34.985° N
 - Longitude 80.840 – 85.605° W
Population Ranked 8th
 - Total 9,992,167 (2013 est)[1]
 - Density 165/sq mi  (65.4/km2)
Ranked 18th
 - Median household income $50,861 (23rd)
 - Highest point Brasstown Bald[2][3]
4,784 ft (1458 m)
 - Mean 600 ft  (180 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
sea level
Before statehood Province of Georgia
Admission to Union January 2, 1788 (4th)
Governor Nathan Deal (R)
Lieutenant Governor Casey Cagle (R)
Legislature General Assembly
 - Upper house State Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Saxby Chambliss (R)
Johnny Isakson (R)
U.S. House delegation 9 Republicans, 5 Democrats (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC −5/−4
Abbreviations GA, Ga. US-GA
Website .gov.georgiawww

Georgia ( ) is a [10] and was the 4th state to ratify the current Constitution on January 2, 1788.

In 1829, gold was discovered in the Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees.

In early 1861, Georgia joined the Union.

A girl spinner in a Georgia Cotton Mill, 1909.

With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering.[12] In 1908, the state established a white primary; with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from politics.[13] They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900.[14] This disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until federal legislation with the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


Road to Brasstown Bald
Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia


Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Georgia v. South Carolina cases in 1923 and 1989.

The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Alabama and Mississippi.[15]

The state's western border then departs in another straight line south-southeastward, at a point southwest of St. Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.

The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by dams, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole.

Georgia state legislators have claimed that in an 1818 survey, the state's border with Tennessee was erroneously placed one mile (1.6 km) farther south than intended, and they proposed a correction in 2010. The state was then in the midst of a significant drought, and the new border would allow Georgia access to water from the Tennessee River.[16]

Geology and terrain

Map of elevations in Georgia

Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher, and small amounts of coal.


The state of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, maples, cypress, sweetgum and scaly-bark and white hickories. Palmettos and other subtropical flora are found in the southern and coastal regions. Yellow jasmine, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.


White-tailed (Virginia) deer are in nearly all counties. The northern mockingbird and Brown Thrasher are among the 160 bird species that live in the state.[17]

Reptiles and amphibians include the

Preceded by
New Jersey
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on January 2, 1788 (4th)
Succeeded by
  • Georgia state government website
  • Georgia State Guide, from the Library of Congress
  • The New Georgia Encyclopedia
  • Georgia State Facts from USDA
  • Georgia (U.S. state) at DMOZ
  • OpenStreetMap

External links

  • (2005)New Georgia Encyclopedia.
  • Bartley, Numan V. The Creation of Modern Georgia (1990). Covers 1865–1990 period. ISBN 0-8203-1183-9.
  • Coleman, Kenneth. ed. A History of Georgia (1991). ISBN 0-8203-1269-X.
  • London, Bonnie Bullard. (2005) Georgia and the American Experience Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press ISBN 1-56733-100-9. A middle school textbook.
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72. ISBN 0-393-05496-9.
  • Williams, David and Christopher C. Meyers. Georgia: A Brief History Macon: Mercer University Press, 2012.

Further reading

  1. ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013" ( 
  2. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States".  
  3. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  4. ^ "Georgia History Overview – The History Channel".  
  5. ^ "Georgia at the Online Etymology Dictionary".  
  6. ^ a b c d "New Georgia Encyclopaedia".  
  7. ^ "Coweta is the 41st fastest growing county in United States". The Times-Herald. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  8. ^ NSTATE, LLC, "States Ranked for Total Area, Land Area, and Water Area –". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Trustee Georgia, 1732–1752". July 27, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  10. ^ "The Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)". July 10, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  11. ^ "A Resolution". Georgia General Assembly. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  12. ^ Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement", Atlanta Regional Council for Higher Education""". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  13. ^ Julien C. Monnet, "The Latest Phase of Negro Disenfranchisement", Harvard Law Review, Vol.26, No.1, Nov. 1912, p.42, accessed April 14, 2008
  14. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia, accessed March 15, 2008
  15. ^ Ulrich Bonnell Phillips. Georgia and state rights: a study of the political history of Georgia from the Revolution to the Civil War. Annual Report of American Historical Association for the 57th US Congress, 1901. p. 30. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Drought-stricken Georgia eyes Tennessee's border - and river water".  
  17. ^ a b c "Georgia – Flora and fauna". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  18. ^ Monthly Averages for Macon, GA The Weather Channel.
  19. ^ Monthly Averages for Clayton, GA The Weather Channel.
  20. ^ "Georgia USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  21. ^ Each state's high temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2004.
  22. ^ Each state's low temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2006
  23. ^ "Weather By Day Georgia". Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Census".  
  25. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Illegals on rise in Southeast". Melbourne,  
  27. ^ Kanell, Michael E. (November 16, 2009). "Number of veterans, October". Atlanta, Georgia: Atlanta Constitution-Journal. pp. A6.  quoting the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  28. ^ "American FactFinder". Census. October 5, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  30. ^ Population of Georgia: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
  31. ^ "2010 Census Data". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  32. ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot".  
  33. ^ "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES-2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Retrieved September 4, 2013. 
  34. ^ "American FactFinder". Census. Retrieved February 11, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for Regions, Divisions and States" (PDF). Census. 1980. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  36. ^ Pulera, Dominic J, Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America 
  37. ^ Farley, Reynolds (August 1991), "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography 28 (3): 414, 421,  
  38. ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Santi, Lawrence (1985), "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research 14 (1): 44–6,  
  39. ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C (September 1986), "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 487 (79): 82–86,  
  40. ^ Frey, William H (May 2004), The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000, The Brookings Institution, retrieved May 19, 2008 .
  41. ^ Atlanta (PDF) (profile), GA: Oca .
  42. ^ "Georgia", Quickfacts, Census .
  43. ^ "Early Mountain Life", Travel, Georgia, archived from the original on May 4, 2008 
  44. ^ Who are Americans, The well 
  45. ^ a b "Georgia".  
  46. ^ "Maps". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  47. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  48. ^ "". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  49. ^ "". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  50. ^ Weiszer, Marc (September 29, 2014). "Georgia's Kublanow balances faith and football". Savannah Now. Kublanow wasn’t just born Jewish, he was raised and had his bar mitzvah while attending an orthodox Chabad synagogue. His mother, Shelly Kublanow Rosenblatt, will attend Friday night and Saturday morning services at the Chabad House in Athens and then head to Sanford Stadium in the afternoon to watch Kublanow and his linemates clear the way for Todd Gurley. 
  51. ^ Sollish, Ari (October 11, 2007). "Chabad Course Explores Israel’s Spiritual Side". Crown Heights Info. ATLANTA, GA — A new six-part adult-education course from Chabad-Lubavitch’s Rohr Jewish Learning Institute will explore the spiritual connection between the Jewish people and the land of Israel starting at the end of October. Unlike courses that focus on the history or the culture of Israel, “The Land & the Spirit: Why We All Care About Israel” will explore the mystery of the deep connection between Jews everywhere and that small patch of land in the Middle East. 
  52. ^ Senate Kids. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  53. ^ Constitution of Georgia Article III Section II. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived December 9, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ Supreme Court Brochure. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived September 27, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ A Brief History of Georgia Counties. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived November 2, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ "Georgia's County Governments". June 5, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  57. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  58. ^ "Charles Crowe, "Racial Violence and Social Reform – Origins of the Atlanta Riot of 1906", The Journal of Negro History: Vol.53, No.3, July 1968". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  59. ^ "A State Divided". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  60. ^ "The long goodbye". November 11, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  61. ^ "The Confident Years". Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Last white Democrat in House from Deep South wins re-election". Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  63. ^ "White voters solidly in for GOP in Georgia (October 16, 2012)". October 16, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  64. ^ a b "Election 2004". CNN. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  65. ^ "Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  66. ^ 7:02 am April 16, 2009, by Jay (April 16, 2009). "Georgia Senate threatens dismantling of USA | Jay Bookman". Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  67. ^ "sr632.html". Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  68. ^ Bookman, Jay (April 16, 2009). "Atlanta News, Sports, Atlanta Weather, Business News". Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  69. ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Per Capita Personal Income by State". Bureau of Business & Economic Research, UNM. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  71. ^ "BEA statistics for 2005 GSP – October 26, 2006". May 23, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  72. ^ Tharpe, Jim (January 4, 2007). """Atlanta Airport Still the "Busiest.  
  73. ^ "Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport". Delta Air Lines, Inc. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  74. ^ Lohr, Kathy (September 3, 2013) "New Carpet Factories Help Cushion Blows From Recession Losses". Retrieved March 19, 2014.
  75. ^ "Port of Savannah fourth-busiest, fastest-growing in the U.S.". Atlanta Business Chronicle. American City Business Journals. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Energy Information Administration". March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  77. ^ a b "Georgia's State and Local Tax Burden 1977–2009". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 
  78. ^
  79. ^ "Georgia Public Policy Foundation". Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  80. ^ Film Industry in Georgia. (2004–2010). The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  81. ^ Georgia Industries: Film Facts. (2010). Georgia. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  82. ^ Georgia Industries: Film & TV. (2010). Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  83. ^ Zoo Atlanta. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  84. ^ Circues. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  85. ^ Alexander, Sheridan "". Retrieved November 28, 2014.
  86. ^ Rattlesnake Roundups. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  87. ^ Associated Press . Retrieved November 28, 2014.
  88. ^ Callaway Gardens. Retrieved December 8, 2007
  89. ^ "Savannah GA Historical Information". Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  90. ^ Willamette. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  91. ^ Atlanta Opera. Retrieved December 8, 2007
  92. ^ Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  93. ^ Literature: Overview. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  94. ^ Tucker, Tim (March 19, 2012). "Atlanta tunes up for Final Four with South region". Atlanta Journal Constitution. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 
  95. ^ "Cobb, Ty". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 
  96. ^ Georgia Department of Natural Resources, accessed May 13, 2007
  97. ^ National Park Service, accessed May 13, 2007
  98. ^ Appalachian Trail. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  99. ^ Civil War Heritage Trails. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  100. ^ Rock climbing. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  101. ^ "Whitewater rafting". July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  102. ^ GA DOE – Testing – EOCT. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  103. ^ GA DOE – Testing – GHSGT. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  104. ^ "210 Designated Market Areas – 03–04". Nielsen Media. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  105. ^ "AJC circulation continues to fall". Atlanta Business Chronicle (American City Business Journals). April 26, 2010. 
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Georgia (U.S. state) –

See also

Rosa laevigata, Cherokee Rose the state flower of Georgia.
A High Island, Texas

State symbols

President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.


Along with the rest of the Southeast, Georgia's population continues to grow rapidly, with primary gains concentrated in urban areas. The population of the Atlanta metropolitan area added 1.23 million people (24 percent) between 2000 and 2010, and Atlanta rose in rank from the eleventh largest metropolitan area in the United States to the ninth largest.[116]

The state has fourteen other cities with populations above 50,000 (based on 2012 census estimates).[115] In descending order of size they are Smyrna.

The ninth largest metropolitan area.[114]



The state has 151 general hospitals, over 15,000 doctors and almost 6,000 dentists.[111] The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise.[112]

Medical Center of Central Georgia in Macon (Georgia's 2nd Largest Hospital)

Health care

The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (Clayton County at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. MARTA also operates a separate paratransit service for disabled customers. As of 2009, the average total daily ridership for the system (bus and rail) was 482,500 passengers.[110]

The Port of Savannah is a major U.S. seaport on the Atlantic coast.

Georgia's primary commercial airport is Athens.[109]

MARTA commuter train

Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Larry McDonald Memorial Highway. Larry McDonald, a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, had been on Korean Air Lines Flight 007 when it was shot down by the Soviets on September 1, 1983.

The Port of Brunswick and the Sidney Lanier Bridge



Also the main headquarters of The Weather Channel is in Atlanta.

WSB-TV in Atlanta is the state's oldest television station, having begun operations in 1948. WSB was only the second such operation founded in the Southern U.S., trailing only a station in Richmond, Virginia.


By far, the largest daily newspaper in Georgia is the Atlanta Journal-Constitution with a daily readership of 195,592 and a Sunday readership of 397,925.[105] Other large dailies include The Augusta Chronicle, the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, The Telegraph (formerly The Macon Telegraph) and the Savannah Morning News.

There are 48 Ted Turner.

The Columbus (127th largest).[104]


The General Educational Development certificate. The student must maintain a 3.2 or higher grade point average and attend a public college or university in the state.

Georgia has almost 70 public colleges, universities, and technical colleges in addition to over 45 private institutes of higher learning. Among Georgia's public universities is the flagship research university, Georgia Board of Regents.

[103] High school students must also receive passing scores on four

Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required to administer a standardized, multiple choice End of Course Test, or EOCT, in each of eight core subjects including algebra, geometry, U.S. history, economics, biology, physical science, Ninth Grade Literature and composition, and American literature. The official purpose of the tests is to assess "specific content knowledge and skills." Although a minimum test score is not required for the student to receive credit in the course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score accounts for 15% of a student's grade in the course.[102] The Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) is taken in 1st–8th grade.

Tech Tower


Outdoor recreational activities include hiking along the Appalachian Trail; Civil War Heritage Trails; rock climbing and whitewater paddling.[98][99][100][101] Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing.

[97] There are 63 parks in Georgia, 48 of which are state parks and 15 that are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves, under the supervision of the

Parks and recreation

Professional baseball's [95]

Atlanta's NCAA Final Four Men's Basketball National Championship in 2002, 2007, and 2013.[94] It hosted WWE's WrestleMania XXVII in 2011, an event which set an attendance record of 71,617. The dome is also the venue of the annual Chick-fil-A Bowl post-season college football games. Since 2004 the FIRST World Championships have been held there.

The Masters golf tournament, the first of the PGA tour's four "majors", is held annually the second weekend of April at the Augusta National Golf Club. The Atlanta Motor Speedway hosts the Dixie 500 NASCAR Cup Series stock car race and Road Atlanta the Petit Le Mans endurance sports car race.

The 1996 Summer Olympics took place in Atlanta. The stadium that was built to host various Olympic events was converted to Turner Field, the home of the Atlanta Braves.

The NCAA Division I FBS, where they have won multiple national championships.

Sports in Georgia include professional teams in all major sports, Major League Baseball, Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League, Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association — and in 2017 is scheduled to land a fourth with an expansion franchise in Major League Soccer.



Also filmed in Georgia is The Vampire Diaries, using Covington as the setting for the fictional Mystic Falls.


A number of notable musicians in various genres of popular music are from Georgia. Included is

Rock groups from Georgia include the Atlanta Rhythm Section, The Black Crowes, the Allman Brothers.

The university city of Athens sparked an influential rock music scene in the 1980s and 1990s. Among the groups achieving their initial prominence in that city were R.E.M., Widespread Panic, and the B-52's.

Since the 1990s, various hip-hop and R&B musicians have included top-selling artists such as Outkast, Usher, Ludacris, TLC, B.o.B., and Ciara. Atlanta is mentioned in a number of these artists' tracks, such as Usher's "A-Town Down" reference in his 2004 hit Yeah! (which also features Atlanta artists Lil Jon and Ludacris), Ludacris' "Welcome to Atlanta", Outkast's album "ATLiens", and B.o.B.'s multiple references to Decatur, such as in his hit song "Strange Clouds".


Films set in Georgia include two pictures both set in Atlanta that were awarded the Oscar for Deliverance (1972), which was based on the novel of the same name by James Dickey, and Parental Guidance.

Well-known television shows set in Atlanta include, from Tyler Perry Studios, House of Payne and Tyler Perry's Meet the Browns, The Real Housewives of Atlanta, the CBS sitcom Designing Women, the popular AMC series The Walking Dead, Lifetime Drop Dead Diva, Rectify and numerous HGTV original productions.


A number of noted authors, poets and playwrights have lived in Georgia such as James Dickey, Flannery O'Connor, Sidney Lanier, Frank Yerby and Lewis Grizzard.[93]

The rich heritage and southern Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Olive Ann Burns' Cold Sassy Tree, and Alice Walker's The Color Purple.


There are a number of performing arts venues in the state, among the largest are the Fox Theatre, and the Alliance Theatre at the Woodruff Arts Center, both on Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta as well as the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre, located in Northwest Atlanta.

[92] The

The state theatre of Georgia is the Columbus.

Georgia's major fine art museums include the Telfair Museum of Art in Savannah; and the Morris Museum of Art in Augusta.[90]

Fine and performing arts

The Fox Theatre is a performing arts venue located in Midtown Atlanta, and is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District.


Several sites honor the lives and careers of noted American leaders: the Ebenezer Baptist Church, where Dr. King preached.

The Cumberland Island National Seashore.

The Savannah Historic District attracts over eleven million tourists each year.[89]

The area is also popular with golfers. [88]

In the Atlanta area, Guinness World Records.[87]


The Georgia Film, Music and Digital Entertainment Office promotes filming in the state.[80] Since 1972, seven hundred film and television projects have been filmed on location in Georgia.[81] In 2008–2009, Georgia's film and television industry created a $1.15 billion economic impact on the state's economy.[82]


The Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities.

[79], certain medical devices, or food items for home consumption.prescription drugs or SPLOST), but there is no sales tax on Special-purpose local-option sales tax with additional percentages added through local options (e.g. [78] Georgia has a

State taxes

Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest in the United States, with coal being the primary electrical generation of fuel. However, the state also has two nuclear power plants which contribute less than one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation. As of 2007 the statistics were 75% coal, 16% nuclear, 7% oil and natural gas, and 1% hydroelectric/other. The leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia "is a leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper products industry". In 2013, the fuel mix was 35% coal, 39% gas, 23% nuclear, 3% hydro.[76]

Energy use and production

Georgia has one of the largest military presences in the country. Several US military installations are located in the state including Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Moody Air Force Base, Robins Air Force Base, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and Coast Guard Station Brunswick.


The Port of Savannah, Port of Brunswick, Port Bainbridge, and Port Columbus. The Port of Savannah is the fourth largest seaport in the United States, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per year.[75] Several major companies including Target, IKEA, and Heineken operate distribution centers in close proximity to the Port of Savannah.


Industrial output includes textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, food processing, paper products, chemical products, and electric equipment.

In November 2009, Kia started production at the first U.S. Kia Motors plant, West Point.

The textile industry is located around the cities of Dalton (the Carpet Capital of the World).[74]

Industry in Georgia is diverse.


Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays, stones, sands and the clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite.


Georgia's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, pecans, peaches, cotton, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass, timber, particularly pine trees, tobacco and vegetables.

A Georgia U.S. quarter
Widespread farms produce peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world, with the region around

Savannah's River Street is a popular destination among visiting tourists.


Tourism makes an important contribution to the economy.

Atlanta has a large effect on the state of Georgia and the Southeastern United States. Atlanta has been the site of growth in real estate, service, and the communications industries.

Georgia has over 1,700 internationally headquartered facilities representing 43 countries, employing more than 112,000 Georgians with an estimated capital investment of $23 billion. [73][72] There are 15 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with headquarters in Georgia, including such names as

[71] Georgia's 2010 total


[68]On April 16, Jay Bookman of
Any Act by the Congress of the United States, Executive Order of the President of the United States of America or Judicial Order by the Judicatories of the United States of America which assumes a power not delegated to the government of the United States of America by the Constitution for the United States of America and which serves to diminish the liberty of the any of the several States or their citizens shall constitute a nullification of the Constitution for the United States of America by the government of the United States of America.
[67] It reads in part:[66]On April 1, 2009, Senate Resolution 632 passed by a vote of 43–1.

In the 21st century, many conservative Democrats, including former U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, have decided to support Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for such measures as restrictions on abortion. In 2004, a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages was approved by 76% of voters.[65]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil rights, governance, and economic growth focused on Atlanta. It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South".


In recent events, Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50 percent of votes, a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008, Chambliss became only the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U.S. Senate.

As of the 2010 reapportionment, the state has 14 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, which are currently held by 9 Republicans and 5 Democrats.

The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in general also resulted in Georgia U.S. House of Representatives member Newt Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the House following the election of a Republican majority in the House in 1994. Gingrich served as Speaker until 1999, when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of House seats held by members of the GOP. Gingrich also mounted an unsuccessful bid for President in the 2012 election, but withdrew after winning only the South Carolina and Georgia primaries.

Even before 2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the state.[64] Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society who was killed when the Soviet Union shot down KAL 007 near Sakhalin Island. Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous,[64] as well as in the cities (especially Atlanta and Athens), and the rural Black Belt region that travels through the central and southwestern portion of the state.

The political dominance of Democrats ended in 2003, when then-Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former Democrat himself. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans now control all three partisan elements of the state government.

[63] Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were [59] For more than 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians nominated and elected only white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly.

White, one-party rule was solidified. [58] A "clean" franchise was linked by Progressives to electoral reform.[57] White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction, especially by legal

Until recently, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party, of any state in the Union. This record was established partly by disfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites in the early 20th century, lasting into the 1960s.

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2012 53.40% 2,070,221 45.44% 1,761,761
2008 52.20% 2,048,744 47.00% 1,844,137
2004 57.97% 1,914,254 41.37% 1,366,149
2000 54.67% 1,419,720 42.98% 1,116,230
1996 47.01% 1,080,843 45.84% 1,053,849
1992 42.88% 995,252 43.47% 1,008,966
1988 59.75% 1,081,331 39.50% 714,792
1984 60.17% 1,068,722 39.79% 706,628
1980 40.95% 654,168 55.76% 890,733
1976 32.96% 483,743 66.74% 979,409
1972 75.04% 881,496 24.65% 289,529
1968* 30.40% 380,111 26.75% 334,440
1964 54.12% 616,584 41.15% 522,557
1960 37.43% 274,472 62.54% 458,638
1956 32.65% 216,652 66.48% 441,094
1952 30.34% 198,979 69.66% 456,823
1948 18.31% 76,691 60.81% 254,646
1944 18.25% 59,880 81.74% 268,187
1940 14.83% 46,360 84.85% 265,194
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes


There is no true land development projects in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities, so every incorporated town is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for Cusseta adopted a consolidated city-county government in 2003.

Georgia consists of 159 home rule" authority, and so the county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county, as a municipality would.

Local government

Georgia stands alone as the only U.S. state to enact a full codification of the common law of contracts, torts, property and domestic relations that was completely independent of Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority.[54] In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including State Courts, Superior Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller courts are elected to four-year terms by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction.

Legislative authority resides in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated.

As with all other US states and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor.

City Hall in Savannah
The Atlanta with the distinctive gold dome

State government


The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is 70% Protestant, 12% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 1% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist and 0.5% Hindu. Atheists, The Temple (Atlanta), Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and Congregation Mickve Israel. Chabad and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute are also active in the state.[50][51]

St. Mark's United Methodist Church - Atlanta, Georgia


  • The U.S. Census Bureau lists fourteen ninth most populous metro area in the United States.

* In 2012, voters approved the consolidation of Macon (pop. 89,981) and unincorporated Bibb County. The population given above is for the totality of Bibb County.

Major cities

As of 2010, 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age 5 and older spoke mother language other than English.[45]

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Georgia
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[45]
Spanish 7.42%
Korean 0.51%
Vietnamese 0.44%
French 0.42%
Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.38%
German 0.29%
Hindi 0.23%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.21%
Gujarati 0.18%
Portuguese and French Creole 0.16%


The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice-growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country.[43][44]

Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 10.1 percent (as of 2008).[42]

Georgia had the second-fastest-growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period.[41] In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American (after Mississippi and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000.

Historically, about half of Georgia′s population was composed of African Americans who, prior to the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914–70 reduced the African American population.[40]

As of 2004, 7.7% of Georgia's population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of 2004, females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.

In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians claimed English ancestry out of a total state population of 3,994,817, making them 40% of the state, and the largest ethnic group at the time.[35] Today, many of these same people claiming that they are of "American" ancestry are actually of English descent, and some are of Scots-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominately English ancestry.[36][37][38][39]

The largest European ancestry groups are:

As of 2011, 58.8% of Georgia's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[32]

Georgia Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[29] 2000[30] 2010[31]
White 71.0% 65.1% 59.7%
Black 27.0% 28.7% 30.5%
Asian 1.2% 2.1% 3.3%
Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- 0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.6% 2.4% 4.0%
Two or more races - 1.4% 2.1%

According to the White Alone), 30.5% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.0% from Some Other Race, and 2.1% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 8.8% of the population.[28]

Race and age

There were 743,000 veterans in 2009.[27]

As of 2010, the state has the sixth highest number of illegal immigrants in the country. There were 35,000 in 1990; the count more than doubled from January 2000 to January 2009, at 480,000.[26]

In 2013, Georgia had an estimated population of 9,992,167 which was an increase of 72,222 from the previous year, and an increase of 304,514 since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

The 2010 United States Census[1]

Population density of Georgia.


Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Athens 51/11
Atlanta 52/11
Augusta 56/13
Columbus 57/14
Macon 57/14
Savannah 60/16
Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of lows.[23]

The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C) in tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their way north.

The majority of the state is primarily a Blue Ridge Mountains to zone 8b (no colder than 15 °F (−9 °C) ) along the Atlantic coast and Florida border.[20]

Image of March 1993 Storm of the Century covering the length of the east coast. The outline of Georgia is discernible in the center of the image.


[17] The most popular freshwater game fish are

[17] The

The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, on June 27, 1864

Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king.[9]



  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Boundaries 2.1
    • Geology and terrain 2.2
    • Flora 2.3
    • Fauna 2.4
    • Climate 2.5
  • Demographics 3
    • Race and age 3.1
    • Languages 3.2
    • Major cities 3.3
    • Religion 3.4
  • Government 4
    • State government 4.1
    • Local government 4.2
    • Elections 4.3
    • Politics 4.4
  • Economy 5
    • Agriculture 5.1
    • Mining 5.2
    • Industry 5.3
    • Logistics 5.4
    • Military 5.5
    • Energy use and production 5.6
    • State taxes 5.7
    • Film 5.8
    • Tourism 5.9
  • Cultural 6
    • Fine and performing arts 6.1
    • Literature 6.2
    • Television 6.3
    • Music 6.4
    • Film 6.5
    • Sports 6.6
  • Parks and recreation 7
  • Education 8
  • Media 9
  • Infrastructure 10
    • Transportation 10.1
    • Health care 10.2
  • Cities 11
  • Notables 12
  • State symbols 13
  • See also 14
  • References 15
  • Further reading 16
  • External links 17

Georgia is bordered on the south by Mississippi River in land area, although it is the fourth largest (after Michigan, Florida, and Wisconsin) in total area, including expanses of water that are part of state territory.[8]

is the state's capital and its most populous city. Atlanta [6]

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