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Vladimir Vazov

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Vladimir Vazov

Vladimir Vazov
Born 14 May 1868
Sopot, Bulgaria
Died

May 20, 1945(1945-05-20) (aged 77#REDIRECT

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Allegiance Kingdom of Bulgaria
Service/branch Bulgarian Army
Years of service 1888 - 1920
Rank Lieutenant General
Commands held
Battles/wars
Awards

Vladimir Minchev Vazov (May 14, 1868 in Sopot – May 20, 1945) was a Bulgarian officer. He led the Bulgarian forces during the successful defensive operation at Dojran during the First World War.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Balkan Wars 2
  • First World War 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6
  • Sources 7

Biography

Vladimir Vazov was born on May 14, 1868 to Mincho Vazov and Suba Hadjinikolova. His brothers were the writer Boris Vazov.

In 1886 Vladimir Vazov entered the Military School in Sofia. After he graduated in 1888 he was assigned as a second lieutenant to the 5th artillery regiment in Shumen.

On the 18 May 1890 Vladimir was promoted to lieutenant and continued his specialization in Hessen, Germany. On 2 August 1894 he received the rank of captain and in 1896 was transferred to the 4th Artillery Regiment in Sofia and served as the commander of an artillery battery. During 1902 and 1903 he attended Artillery School in Tsarskoye Selo, Russia. In 1904 Vladimir was part of a special Bulgarian delegation which visited France and Germany to assess the capabilities of their newest artillery equipment and choose a supplier for the Bulgarian Army. On 17 February 1906 the minister of war decreed the establishment of a special Artillery School in Sofia and Vladimir Vazov was assigned as its assistant principal. On 31 December of the same year he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1909 he was the commander of an artillery section in the 4th Artillery Regiment but was soon made a brigade commander.

Balkan Wars

During the First Balkan War Vladimir Vazov served as commander of the 4th Quick-Firing Artillery Regiment of the 1st Sofia Infantry Division. When the war was declared on 5 of October 1912 some 21 officers and 1168 soldiers were serving in his regiment.

On the 9th of October Vazov fought around the village of Geçkinli where the Bulgarians defeated the Ottomans despite the latter's sizable numerical advantage. After that he took part in the Battle of Kirk Kilisse and later fought in the First Battle of Çatalca.

During the Second Balkan War Vladimir retained the command of his regiment and participated in the fighting around Tsaribrod, Pirot, Bubliak ad Gradoman.

First World War

By August 1915 lieutenant colonel Vazov was serving as commander of the 5th Division's artillery brigade.[1] In October of the same year the division was subordinated to the Bulgarian 2nd Army which was conducting operations against the Serbians in Vardar Macedonia. Here the lieutenant-colonel and his brigade took part in the heavy fighting around the town of Gnjilane, during the Battle of Kosovo. With the final defeat of the Serbian army in November the 5th Division was turned south to face the French forces advancing up the river Vardar. On 28 November Vazov was severely wounded and forced to take leave from active frontal duties during the next several months.[1] Soon afterwards he was promoted to colonel

In 1916 he was made commander of the 1st Infantry Brigade of the 5th Division and successfully led it in action against Allies during their Autumn Offensive on the Macedonian Front.[1]

On 1 March 1917 he took the command of the 9th Pleven Infantry Division which was part of the First Bulgarian Army. Beginning in 1916 the division occupied a stretch of the Macedonian Front between the river Vardar and lake Dojran.

As soon as he was appointed he inspected the entire section of the front that was under his command and took measures to strengthen and fortify it. Under his guidance the forced were deployed in order to create a defence in depth.

His efforts to improve the positions were soon tested during the Second Battle of Doiran between 22 and 26 April 1917. Some 86 heavy and 74 field British guns bombarded the line with more than 100,000 shells but caused insignificant damage and the following infantry attack suffered a heavy defeat. In early May the British resumed their assault but were again defeated and suffered heavy casualties. Following this attack the Bulgarian 34th Troyan Regiment alone buried the bodies of some 2,290 Allied officers and soldiers. Due to his significant contribution for the victory on 20 of May 1917 Vladimir Vazov was promoted to major general.

Lieutenant General Vladimir Vazov.

The location of the Doiran Sector was crucial as it represented the shortest possible route to the valley of the Vardar and during the summer of 1918 its defence was expanded to consist of 4 lines arrayed in depth. Hence it was much better prepared to face an attack than the previous year.

When the Allied Vardar Offensive began the British and two Greek divisions once again attacked the 9th Pleven Division at Doiran. During this Third Battle of Doiran the Allies once again enjoyed significant advantage in firepower and manpower, being able to bombard the Bulgarian position with over 300,000 ordinary and gas shells. Despite this the damage to the fortifications was limited and the fighting again resulted in a decisive Bulgarian victory. According to official British sources the Allied losses totalled just over 7,000. Bulgarian sources however report a figure of over 11,000. The Bulgarian and German commanders on the Macedonian Front were not able to fully use the results of the decisive victory at Doiran to their advantage and Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918 thus ending its participation in the First World War.

On February 24, 1920 lieutenant-general Vazov went into the reserve. In 1926 he became mayor of Sofia. During his mandate (until 1932) the fire department was reformed, the electrical network expanded, and the public transport improved. Sofia became one of the “greenest” capitals in Europe.

Among the most notable moments of Vladimir Vazov’s life was his visit to Lord Milne, who shook his hand with the words "It is a pleasure to meet the Bulgarian delegation, as even though we were enemies, you - like us - fought not only like brave men, but also like gentlemen." The British paid great honour to General Vazov as they lowered their national flags in his name. The chairman of the British legion Major Goldy said in his speech: “He is one of the few foreign officers whose name features in our history”.

The last years of his life were spent in the village of Ribaritsa (near Lovech), where he died in 1945.

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c Вазов. Животописни бележки p. 11

External links

  • General Vazov in the Great Bulgarians list

Sources

  • Gen. Vladimir Vazov
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